AUTHOR: Hillebrand, Randall
PUBLISHED ON: May 5, 2005
DOC SOURCE: www.hillebrandministries.com


  I.  Anthropology: Definition of

II.  Existence of man: Theories
      A.  Theistic views
          1.  Day-age theory
          2.  Theistic evolution
          3.  Gap theory
          4.  Literal 24-hour-day
      B.  Atheistic view

III. Essence of man
     A.  Material
     B.  Non-material
         1.  Elements which comprise
             a.  Soul/spirit
                 1) Soul
                 2)  Spirit
                 3)  Views of soul and spirit
                     a)  Dichotomous view
                     b)  Trichotomous view
             b.  Heart  
             c.  Mind
             d.  Conscience
             e.  Flesh
         2.  Theories of non-material essence of man
             a.  Theory of preexistence
             b.  Creation theory
             c.  Traducian theory
     C.  Made in the image of God
         1.  Meaning of the terms
         2.  How do we resemble God?
         3.  Are we still in the image and likeness of God?

IV.  Fall of man
     A.  Facts
         1.  Fall of mankind (Adam and Eve) — Gen. 3:1-5:32
             a.  The sin of Adam and Eve — Gen. 3:1-24
                 1)  The temptation of Eve and the fall — vss. 1-7
                     a)  Identification of the serpent — vs. 1a
                     b)  Temptation of Eve — vss. 1b-5
                         1.  Eve detracted from what God had said
                         2.  Eve added a prohibition God had not given
                         3.  Eve lessened the consequence of disobeying God’s
                     c)  Result of the temptation of Eve — vss. 6-7
                 2)  The accusations associated with the fall —  vss. 8-13
                 3)  The curses associated with the fall — vss. 14-19
                     a)  For the serpent — vss. 14-15
                         1.  All creation was cursed — vs. 14a-d
                         2.  The serpent was cursed — vs. 14
                             a.  Serpent was cursed more than any other animal
                             b.  Serpent was to eat dust as it crawled on its belly all the
                                 days of its life
                             c.  Satan would have enmity between him and the woman
                             d.  Satan would have enmity between his seed and the
                                 woman’s seed
                             e.  Satan would be bruised on the head though he would
                                 only bruise the woman’s seed on the heel
                     b)  For the woman — vs. 16
                         1.  Her pain in childbirth would be greatly multiplied — vs.
                         2.  Her desire would be to rule over her husband — vs. 16d-e
                     c)  For the man — vss. 17-19
                         1.  Reason for Adam’s curse — vs. 17a-d
                             a.  “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife”
                             b.  Because you “have eaten from the tree about which I
                                 commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat from it'”
                         2.  The curse — vss. 17e-19
                             a.  Cursed is the ground — vss. 17e-19a
                                 1)  Toil — vs. 17e-g
                                 2)  Thorns and thistles — vs. 18
                                 3)  Sweat — vs. 19a
                             b.  You shall return to the ground — vs. 19b-e
                 4)  The actions of God because of the fall — vss. 20-24
                     a)  God made Adam and Eve garments — vss. 20-21
                     b)  God  sent Adam and Eve out of the garden — vss. 22-23
                     c)  God kept Adam and Eve from the tree of life — vs. 24
         2.  Results of the fall
             a.  Sin entered the world — cf. Gen. 4:8
             b.  Wickedness spread throughout the world — Gen. 6:5
             c.  Mankind became condemned — Rom. 5:8
     B.  Sin
     C.  Consequences
         1.  To Adam and Eve: Personally
             a.  Physical
             b.  Spiritual
         2.  To mankind: Individually
             a.  Sin
                 1)  Definition: Imputation
                 2) Original sin
                    a)  Its imputation — Rom. 5:12-14
                    b)  Its condemnation — Rom. 5:15-17
                    c)  Its result — Rom. 5:18-21
                3)  Theories of imputation of sin
                    a.  Pelagian Theory
                    b.  Arminian Theory
                    c.  Federal Theory
                    d.  Augustinian Theory (or The Realistic Theory)
                    e.  The Theory of Mediate Imputation
                    f.  The Corporate Personality Theory
                4)  Biblical arguments (From Romans 5:12-21)
            b.  Other consequences
                1)  Sin nature and total depravity of man
                    a) Sin nature
                    b)  Total depravity
                2)  Death
                    a)  Physical
                    b)  Spiritual
                3)  Guilt
                4)  Spiritual consequences
     E.  Man’s need: Christ
         1.  Forgiveness
         2.  Justification
         3.  New nature/self


III. Essence of man
     A.  Material
         Genesis 2 gives us insight into how God created man.  It says in Genesis 2:7:

         “Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.”

         We then see in Genesis 2:20-22 how woman was created.  It says:

         “The man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the sky, and to every beast of the field, but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him. 21So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place. 22The LORD God fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man.”

         We see here that God took a rib from Adam after having put him to sleep, and then from this rib fashioned it into a woman.

         So this is how Adam and Eve — the parents of all people — came into existence.  They were the result of an act of God.  And, their creation was different than that of any other form of life.  We see in Genesis 2:19 that God created the beasts of the field and the birds out of the ground as well.  It says:

         “Out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name.”

         The difference is that it says in Genesis 2:7 that God “breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.”  God did not do this with the animals.  Man was given a soul by God and will live for eternity.  Animals have no soul and cease to exist after death.

     B.  Non-material
         1.  Elements which comprise
             a.  Soul/spirit
                 1) Soul (Gk.: psuche)
                    The soul is that non-material part of man which seems to deal with things such as memory, imagination and understanding, with a focus on interfacing with the things of the world.

                    Aspects of the soul are that it:
                    a.  Is a part of man — Job 33:18
                    b.  Can be troubled — Psa. 42:6
                    c.  Departs from man at death — Gen. 35:18
                    d.  Can go to heaven — Rev. 6.9
                    e.  Can go to hell — Mat. 10:28
                    f.  Can be given to death — Mat. 20:28
                    g.  Can prosper — 3 John 2
                    h.  Can come to life  — Rev. 20:4
                2)  Spirit (GK.: pneuma)
                    The spirit is that non-material part of man which seems to deal with the higher processes such as a person’s conscience, powers of reasoning and free will, with a focus on interfacing with God.

                    Aspects of the spirit are that it:
                    a.  Is a part of man — Job 33:18
                    b.  Can be troubled — Psa. 42:6
                    c.  Departs from man at death — Gen. 35:18
                    d.  Can go to heaven — Rev. 6.9
                    e.  Can go to hell — Mat. 10:28
                    f.  Returns to God (if a believer) — Eccl. 12:7; Acts 7:59
                    g.  Can be broken — Job 17:1
                    h.  Seeks God — Isa. 26:9
                    i.  Is given by God — Isa. 42:5
                    j.  Is a part of a person’s thought processes — 1 Cor. 5:3

                3)  Views of soul and spirit
                    a)  Dichotomous view
                        The dichotomous view understands man as consisting of two parts, material (body) and non-material (soul/spirit).  Thus, the word dichotomy comes from the Greek word dicha which means, “two,” and from the Greek word temno which means, “to cut.” Therefore man is a being which can be cut into two parts.  Hence, man is a two-part being, consisting of body and soul.

                        In this view, the soul and spirit are of one substance — the non-material part of man.  They are not seen as separate, but as the same, though having some distinctions.  This view is supported by the fact that:

                        1.  In the garden when God created man, He created Adam
from the dust of the ground and then breathed into him making him a living or soulish being (Gen. 2:7; cf. Job 27:3)
                        2.  The words soul and spirit are used as synonymous terms in different passages (cf. Gen. 41:8 and Psa. 42:6; Mat. 20:28 and 27:50; John 12:27 and 13:21; Heb. 12:23 and Rev. 6:9).  Also, as seen in point III, B, 1, a, above, the soul and spirit have many similarities.
                        3.  The body and the soul/spirit seem to constitute the whole person (cf. Mat. 10:28; 1 Cor. 5:3; 3 John 2).

                    b)  Trichotomous view
                        The trichotomous view understands man as consisting of three parts: body, soul and spirit.  Thus, the word trichotomy comes from the Greek word tricha which means, “three,” and from the Greek word temno which means, “to cut.” Therefore man is a being which can be cut into three parts.  Hence, man is a three-part being, consisting of body, soul and spirit.

                        Whereas the dichotomous view sees the soul and spirit as being of the same substance, the trichotomous view understands them as different in both substance and function.  One view sees the body, soul and spirit as:

                        Body: world-conscious
                        Soul: self-conscious
                        Spirit: God-conscious

                        This view is supported by the fact that:
                        1. Paul seems to make a distinction between the body, soul and spirit, as he desired that the entire person be sanctified (1 Thess. 5:23).
                        2.  The writer of Hebrews seems to make a distinction
between the soul and spirit and the ability of the Word of God to divide between the two (Heb. 4:12).
                        3.  First Corinthians 2:14–3:4 seems to suggest a threefold classification of man: natural, carnal, and spiritual.  See Mark 12:30 as an example of a fourfold division (heart, soul, mind and strength).

             b.  Heart  
                 Though this word can describe the physical organ, which is called by this name, it also describes the intellect (what a man thinks about; Mat. 5:8,18-20) and volition or will of a man (what a man does; Mark 3:5; Luke 24:25; 2 Cor. 9:7; Rom. 10:9-10; Heb. 4:7).

             c.  Mind
                 This word is used the same in Scripture as the word heart.  It too speaks of the intellect (Rom. 1:28; 1 Cor. 14:19) and volition of a man (1 Cor. 14:15; Php. 2:2; Col. 1:21).  A person’s heart/mind can be given either to the things of the world (Rom. 1:28; 2 Cor. 4:4; Eph. 4:17-18; Col. 1:21; Titus 1:15) or to the things of God (Mat. 22:37; Rom. 12:2; Col. 3:2; Titus 1:15).

             d.  Conscience
                 The conscience of a man is that immaterial part that convicts (Rom. 2:15) or affirms him of his actions (Acts 23:1; 24:16; Rom. 9:1).  Though this is the case, as a result of the fall of Adam, a person’s conscience is not completely reliable (1 Tim. 4:2).  However, one’s conscience can be cleansed or renewed (Heb. 9:14) when a person comes to Christ, though this does not guarantee that it is flawless (1 Cor. 8:7,10,12).
             e.  Flesh
                 Though this term may be used to describe the material part of man (cf. Rom. 8:3), in the Scriptures it is commonly used to refer to the immaterial, old nature of man.

                 Therefore, the flesh is that part of man which is aroused to sinful passions (Rom. 7:5), indulging in itself (Eph. 2:3), for nothing good dwells in it (Rom. 7:18) because the flesh is hostile toward God and the things of God  (Rom. 8:6-7).  This then is the natural state of the non-Christian since they do not have the Spirit of God (Rom. 8:5). 

                 The Christian on the other hand is not to live their life according to the flesh (Rom. 8:2,12; 12:1; 13:14; Gal. 5:16) because of their redeemed relationship with Christ (Rom. 6:6; Col. 2:11).  Though this is the case, and though they are to present their bodies to God as a living, holy sacrifice (Rom. 12:1), the Christian will face a continual battle within themselves between their flesh and the Spirit of God  which indwells them their entire lives (Rom. 7:14ff; Gal. 5:17).

         2.  Theories of non-material essence of man
             a.  Theory of preexistence
                 This theory teaches that the souls of men preexisted, and at some point in the early development of the body, entered and indwelt them.  Not only is this taught in Hinduism, known as reincarnation, but also Plato, Philo, and Origen believed this, though all for different reasons.

                 The idea of this theory is that in a previous existence the souls sinned (i.e., men were angels which sinned), and as a result they were cursed to live in human bodies for their punishment.  Though the Bible does not advocate this teaching, it may have influenced the disciples of Jesus.  This may be why they asked Jesus if the blind man or his parents had sinned for him to have been born blind (John 9:1ff).  Man sins because we inherited a sin nature (cf. Gen. 3; Rom. 5:14-19), not because we previously existed and sinned before conception.

             b.  Creation theory
                 This theory teaches that the body of a person is the result of the sexual union of the parents, but that each soul is the result of a special creation of God.  Therefore each body is given a soul at conception by God.

                 People have held this view as a way to explain why Jesus did not receive a sin nature from Mary.  It would also explain for some why the body is mortal and the soul is immortal.

                 The problem with this theory is it does not explain why man sins.  If they are given a soul from God, one would expect that soul to be perfect and not flawed with sin.  Therefore, God would either have to give man a sin-ridden soul which is not a possibility, or the perfect soul would have to fall into sin, possibly as a result of contact with the body.  Somehow this perfect soul would need to become corrupted since the Bible teaches that man is corrupted by sin (Psa. 51:5; cf. Rom 5:14ff).

             c.  Traducian theory
                 This theory teaches that both the body and soul are the byproduct of the sexual union of a man and a woman.  God, having given this ability to His creation to propagate their species (man as a species: Gen. 1:26-27; Gen. 5:2; Rom. 7:1; cf. Acts 17:26), has given man the ability to produce other human beings in their entirety.

                 This would explain how children resemble their parents, not only in how they look physically, but how they act, think and feel (behavior or personality, intellect and emotional similarities).  This would also explain the depravity of man, since the sin nature of Adam was passed on to all mankind (cf. Rom. 5:12,14-19; Job 14:4; 15:14; Psa. 51:5; 58:3; John 3:6; Eph. 2:3).  As Levi paid tithes in Abraham to Melchizedek (cf. Heb. 7:9ff), so we sinned in Adam (Rom. 5:12) (see the Augustinian theory of the imputation of sin below [IV, C, 2, a, 3, d]).

                 With this theory, how then was it that Jesus did not have a sin nature since, though His Father was the Holy Spirit, His mother was a fallen woman?  Some believe that before the Son of God received His human nature from Mary at conception, it was first sanctified, possibly when the Holy Spirit overshadowed Mary at conception (cf. Luke 1:35), because the Bible clearly teaches that Jesus was sinless (cf. Rom. 8:3; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15; 7:26; 1 Pet. 1:19; 2:22).  One less held view is that the sin nature is not passed on by the woman, but only by the man.  If this is so, then the egg of Mary that was impregnated by the Holy Spirit did not carry the sin nature, but only the genetic characteristics of the child.  Therefore, with the Holy Spirit being the Father, the Child Jesus would have been conceived without sin.

     C.  Made in the image of God
         We have seen thus far that man is composed of material and immaterial parts.  Therefore, what does it mean that we are made in the image and likeness of God?

         1.  Meaning of the terms
             Genesis 1:26-27 says:

             “Then God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.’ 27God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.”

             What do the terms, image and likeness, mean?

             DEF: image — a representative figure; resemblance
             DEF: likeness — resemblance

             For all practical purposes, the two words are synonymous terms. Then why are they used together like this?  I believe to make a distinction and to stress the point that man would be different from all the rest of God’s creation.  Up until this point in chapter one, God had created many things, but now, as God is ready to create man, He makes a declaration which made a distinction between man and everything else He created previously.

         2.  How do we resemble God?
             This is debated, yet I will make an attempt at defining this resemblance.  We are in God’s likeness in that we have:
             a.  Volition (a will): i.e., desire to rule, cf. Gen. 1:26
             b.  Intellect: i.e., ability to rule, cf. Gen. 1:26
             c.  Emotion: i.e., God and men get angry, cf. Deut. 4:25 and Gen. 30:2
             d.  Characteristics: i.e., goodness, justice, love, creativity, life

             We of course do not resemble God in form, for He is spirit (John 4:24). Though we have a spirit portion (soul and spirit), we are also flesh and blood.  Other differences are that God is eternal, omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent, righteous, holy, just, immutable, immense, love — we are none of these things!  Actually we are sinful and wicked and only reflect certain aspects of God’s true character.

         3.  Are we still in the image and likeness of God?
             Yes we are, though it is a marred image.  Let’s look at some passages that state this.
             a) We are still in the image of God
                1) Genesis 5:1-3
                   “This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day when God created man, He made him in the likeness of God.  2He created them male and female, and He blessed them and named them Man in the day when they were created.  3When Adam had lived one hundred and thirty years, he became the father of a son in his own likeness, according to his image, and named him Seth.”

                   Adam was made in the likeness of God.  After the fall, Adam then had a son who was made in his likeness and image, the same image and likeness that came from God.  So mankind is in the image and likeness of God, for that image and likeness are passed from one generation to another.

                2) Genesis 9:6

                   “Whoever sheds man’s blood,
                   By man his blood shall be shed,
                   For in the image of God
                   He made man.”

                   Again, after the fall and the flood of Noah, Noah was given this commandment.  Whoever sheds man’s blood (murder is in view) was to have his blood shed.  Why?  Because the man that was murdered was made in God’s image.

                3)  James 3:9

                    “With it [the tongue] we bless our Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who have been made in the likeness of God”

                    We see in the New Testament that James again confirms that man is made in the likeness of God.

                    We will now look at two passages which show that the believer is being renewed to the image of God.  Because this is true, we know that we are no longer reflecting the image and likeness of God as we had before the fall.  Because sin has entered the human race, though we are still in His image, has been marred or affected by sin.

             b)  The Christian is being renewed to a true knowledge of God’s image
                 1)  Ephesians 4:17-24
                     “So this I say, and affirm together with the Lord, that you walk no longer just as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility of their mind, 18being darkened in their understanding, excluded from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart; 19and they, having become callous, have given themselves over to sensuality for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. 20But you did not learn Christ in this way, 21if indeed you have heard Him and have been taught in Him, just as truth is in Jesus, 22that, in reference to your former manner of life, you lay aside the old self, which is being corrupted in accordance with the lusts of deceit, 23and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 24and put on the new self, which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.”

                     In these verses Paul is telling the Ephesians to lay aside their old self, their sinful behavior with its evil practices.  This is not how they learned to live in Christ.  They were to live differently than they did as unbelievers.  Instead they are to put on their new self.  The new self is a new nature which a believer receives at salvation.  According to verse 23, as a person is renewed in their mind (this is  the result of Biblical knowledge received, see Col. 3:10), they will then be able to put on, or live in accordance to, their new nature.  What are the characteristics of the new nature?  It has been created in the likeness of God, therefore it is characterized by righteousness and holiness.

                     Thus, the believer has a new nature which the unbeliever does not have.  This new nature is righteous and holy, and is in the image of God.  Therefore we have the potential to walk in accordance with this nature, reflecting the unmarred image of God as Adam and Eve did before the fall.

                     Let’s look at one other aspect of the new self.

                 2)  Colossians 3:5-10

                     “Therefore consider the members of your earthly body as dead to immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed, which amounts to idolatry. 6For it is because of these things that the wrath of God will come upon the sons of disobedience, 7and in them you also once walked, when you were living in them. 8But now you also, put them all aside: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and abusive speech from your mouth. 9Do not lie to one another, since you laid aside the old self with its evil practices, 10and have put on the new self who is being renewed to a true knowledge according to the image of the One who created him.”

                     We see that the new self is being renewed to a true knowledge according to the image of God.  How?  This is accomplished by the Holy Spirit (cf. Titus 3:5) through the Word of God (cf. John 17:17; Eph. 5:26).  And as it is, it will increasingly reflect the image of God.  So though we have a marred image as a fallen race, the believer has the potential to walk in accordance to the image of God in righteousness and holiness and truth.  The unregenerate man does not have this potential.

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