AUTHOR: Camping, Harold
PUBLISHED ON: May 6, 2003
PUBLISHED IN: Bible Studies

                      THE BIBLICAL CALENDAR



                        by Harold Camping

                A Chronological Record of Events
                  According to the Holy Bible

                      FAMILY STATIONS, INC.
                      290 Hegenberger Road
                  Oakland, California  94621

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

<0>  Introduction
<1>  The Clue Phrase “Called His Name’
<2>  An Ancient Calendar
<3>  Calendar Confirmation from Egypt
<4>  Aaron’s was the Fourth Generation
<5>  The First Civilization
<6>  The Confusion of Tongues
<7>  Egypt Becomes a Great Civilzation
<8>  Writing and the Tower of Babel
<9>  Conclusion
<10>  A Calendar of Events in Biblical History
          The Chronological Sequence During the Egyptian Sojourn
          Historical Timetable of Pharaohs and Dynasties
          Chronology of the Judges
          Israel Chronology
          Note on Oppression by Heathen Power
          Chronological Table of the Kings of the Divided Kingdom
<11>  References


.    Chapters 5  and 11  of the  book of  Genesis have  long been a seemingly 
insurmountable  obstacle  to  students  of  the  Bible.  Inasmuch as they
begin with  Adam and end with Abraham,  they have their  roots in  creation
and  their outreach  into the era of the great civilizations of Babylon and
Egypt, which flourished  during Abraham’s  day. They therefore tantalize the
scholar who is trying to reconstruct past history.  Unfortunately, because a
solution to an understanding of  these chapters has not  been forthcoming, the
events  embraced within their scope — creation, the  fall of man, the
Noachian  flood — are likewise often  looked upon as accounts impervious to
clear understanding.
    Bishop  Ussher’s  attempt  to  understand  these chronological notices has 
only worsened  matters.  His  conclusions that Adam’s date  was 4004  B.C.,
the  flood date  was 2349  B.C. and that the Israelites  spent  215  years  in 
Egypt,  agree  neither with the Biblical nor the secular evidence.

.    But these chapters of Genesis are  a part of the Word of  God, and
therefore they must be  true and dependable. The question  is, can they be
rightly understood?  I would be so  presumptuous as to suggest a solution  to
these chronologies.  This  solution will be compared with some of the
pertinent archaeological evidence.

The Clue Phrase “Called His Name”

.    In Genesis 4 and 5 we read of the birth of Enosh to Seth.  Why did God
use different language in describing this event in Genesis 4 than  in Genesis
5?  In  Genesis 4 “Seth called  his name Enosh” (Gen. 4:26).  But in Chapter 5
the  Bible says,” Seth begat Enosh” (Gen.5:6).  Why did God use the phrase
“called  his name” (ASV) in connection  with Enosh’s  birth in  Genesis 4 
when He  did not in Genesis 5?  It is obvious that the phrase “Seth begat
Enosh, ” or “Methuselah  begat  Lamech,”  did  not  insure  that Enosh was the
immediate son of Seth or Lamech or Methuselah.  Many instances can be  found
where a father-son  relationship appears to be indicated and yet other
Scriptural evidence points to more distant ancestry.  Matthew  1:1,, where 
Jesus is  referred to  as the son David, and David, the son Abraham, is
.    A  more careful examination of  the Scriptures reveals why the phrase
“called his name” which is  the Hebrew qara’, was used.  In every place  where
this phrase is employed,  there can be no doubt of  the  existing 
relationship:  invariably  it  is indicative of parent  and  child.  Thus 
the  Bible says, for example, “Abraham called  the  name  of  his 
son…Isaac”  (Gen. 21:3), “…so they called  his name Esau” (Gen. 25:25), 
“a virgin shall conceive and shall call his name Immanuel” (Isa. 7:14). In
every instance where this  “clue” phrase appears  one may be  certain that an
immediate son is being described and not a more remote descendant. 

.    God’s use of this “clue” phrase thus assures one that Seth was the
immediate son of Adam (Gen.  4:24), Enosh of Seth (Gen. 4:26), and Noah of his
father, Lamech (Gen. 5:29).

.    But  what  about  the  rest  of  the  names appearing in these
genealogies  under  discussion?  Two  are  decipherable.  Other Biblical
evidence shows clearly that Shem was the immediate son of Noah, even though
the phrase “called his name” is not used.(1) The Bible  shows, too, by other
information that when Terah was 130 he became the father of Abram.(2) But in
the case of all of the other names listed in  these chapters there  is no
Biblical  evidence of any  kind that points to an immediate father-son
relationship.  In fact, there is internal evidence within these accounts that
points to other than immediate father-son relationships.(3)

An Ancient Calendar

.    In  further  reflection  upon  this  situation,  two  Biblical notices
should be examined.  The first is that of Genesis 7 and 8, where the dates of
the flood  events are referenced to the age  of Noah.  Thus Gen. 8:13 records,
“in the six hundred and first year, in the first  month, the first day of  the
month, the waters….,” etc. Gen. 7:6  indicates to us that the six  hundred
years was the age of Noah when the  flood came.  Could the calendars  of
ancient peoples have been tied to the life spans of certain individuals?

.    The second notice  is that of  the New Testament  where Christ declared 
“this  generation  will  not  pass  away until all these things take  place”
(Matt.  24:34).  In  this reference  Christ is speaking of events that would 
take place just before His  return.  He  is  therefore  insisting  “this 
generation” would continue at least for  almost two thousand  years, for this 
much time has now elapsed, and  all of  the events  of which  he was 
prophesying in Matthew 24 have  not yet happened.  As  a matter of fact,  this
is the generation of Jesus Christ.  This is 1981  A.D. — the year of our
Lord.  The  events of today are dated exactly  as they were in Noah’s day, by
reference to the birth day of a person.

.    Since  this method  of dating  events was  practiced in Noah’s day, was 
suggested by Jesus Himself, and  is actually the pratice use  today,  could 
not  this  have  been  the method described in Genesis 5  and 11?  Isn’t it 
possible that  these accounts are a calendar giving the name of  the patriarch
whose life span was the reference  point  at  his  period  or generation in
history?  This would make abundant  sense, for this would  provide for
continuity and clarity in historical reckoning.

Calendar Confirmation from Egypt

.    God gives additional evidence  to support this reasoning.  In Exodus 6
God gives genealogical information concerning some of the descendants of 
Jacob. The information given  does not appear very meaningful to our present
day  and age.  But hidden amongst  these verses are three numbers.  The first
is found in verse 16 where it is stated that Levi’s three sons were  Gershon,
Kohath and Merari, and the years of Levi’s  life were 137.  The second is in
the next verse, where it says Kohath’s four sons were Amram,  Ighar, Hebron
and Uzziel, and the years of Kohath’s life were 133.  The third is in verse
20, where it says Amram was married  to Jochebed ande she bore him Moses and
Aaron, and the years of Amram’s  life were 137.  At first reading,  it appears
that Levi was the great grandfather, Kohath the grandfather, Amram  the
father, and Moses and Aaron the sons.  But is this so?  There is no other
Biblical  evidence that indicates this  is the case, and  there is no use 
anywhere in the Bible of the  phrase “called his  name” in reference  to these
men which would point to a immediate father-son relationship.  But why would
God give the life spans of only three individuals amongst so many?

.    To  solve  this  puzzle,  let  us  assume God is giving us the calendar
for the Israelitish  sojourn in Egypt.  One  might recall that Jacob came  to
Egypt with  his sons including  Levi, and that the Israelites went out of
Egypt under the leadership of Moses and Aaron.  Both Levi and Aaron are
mentioned in Exodus 6 and  the age of Aaron at the time of Israel’s departure
from Egypt is given  as 83 (Exodus 7:7).  It can be shown from the Bibical
references that when Levi  entered Egypt he was 60+3 years of age, with the
burden of the evidence pointing to 60 years.  Since he died at the age of 137,
he lived 77 years in Egypt.  If this is a calendar giving the names of the
reference patriarchs  or generations, we would expect that Kohath  was a 
descendant of  Levi and  was born  the year of Levi’s death: that  Amram was a
descendant of  Kohath, and that he was born the year  of Kohath’s death. Aaron 
in turn was born  the year of Amram’s death, and  was descended from Amram. 
Let  us add these time spans together: 

              Levi              77 years in Egypt
              Kohath            137 years in Egypt
              Amram            133 years in Egypt
              Aaron              83 years in Egypt
                                430 years — Total Time

Turning  now  to  the  Biblical  record, we discover the following interesting 
information.  “Now  the  time  that  the children of Israel dwelt  in Egypt
was four hundred  and thirty years.  And it came to pass at the end of four
hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came  to pass, that all the
hosts  of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt” (Ex. 12:40,41).

.    God thus shows us clearly that the calendar used to record the passage of
time during the Egyptian sojourn was based on the lives of  Levi  and  his 
descendants,  Kohath,  Amram  and Aaron.  This explains too the prophecy given
to Abraham in Gen. 15:13-16, where he is told his descendants would be
oppressed 400 years  in a land that was not theirs, and that they would return
to their  own land in the fourth generation.

Aaron’s was the Fourth Generation

.    I believe  that God in  His wonderful wisdom  has given us the key that
unlocks the hitherto perplexing genealogies of Genesis  5 and 11.  These
chapters are a calendar.  The time was divided into patriarchal  periods  or 
generation,  even  as  the New Testament period  is the  generation of  Jesus
Christ,  and as  the Egyptian sojourn was so divided.  Thus, for example,
when Methuselah died, bringing to an end his generation, a man who was  born
in the year of  Methuselah’s  death  was  selected  to  be  the  next reigning
patriarch, or at least the next man for calendar reference.  After Methuselah, 
this  was  Lamech.  None  of  the  conditions  of his selection  are given, 
except that  he had  to be  a descendant of Methuselah.  The Bible indicates
that Methuselah was 187 years old when  he begat  Lamech: i.e.,  when he  was
187  the forefather of Lamech  was  born  to  Methuselah  (Gen.  5:25). 
This  notice establishes  the  certainty  of  Lamech’s  blood  descent 
from Methuselah by  showing where his forefather tied  into the life of

.    The selection  of the  next patriarch  had to  include a birth date
coinciding with Methuselah’s death date to insure  a rational history.  Had he 
been born one  or more years  earlier an overlap would  have occurred which
would  have blurred history.  If Lamech had been born  one or more years kater 
than Methuselah’s death, a gap would have  occurred which have confused 
history.  Therefore, when  a  citizen  of  the  world  of  that  day  spoke of
an event occurring  in the  year Methuselah  950, only  one year in history
answered to that date.  Again, if  he spoke of the year Lamech  2, only  one
year  answered to  this date,  and he knew precisely how many years transpired
from Methuselah 950 and Lamech 2.

.    At the beginning men were comparatively scarce.  Thus it seems apparent
that when Adam died, there was no one born  that year who was qualified to 
become the next reference  patriarch.  When Seth died  112  years  later  the 
same  situation prevailed.  But when Enosh, the grandson of Adam, died 98
years after Seth, a child who was a  descendant of  Enosh was  born in  the
same  year, and this child was eventually named as the  next reference
patriarch.  this was Kenan.  Kenan’s life  span thus became the  calendar
reference for that  period of history.  The calendar was  continued in this
fashion until Methuselah died and Lamech was born.

.    When Lamech was born he was  the one to whom the calendar  was
referenced.  But his  descendant who was born the year of Lamech’s death and 
who should have  become the next  patriarch died in the flood.  This can
easily be  known, for Lamech died 5  years before the flood  and only  Noah
and  his immediate  family survived  the flood.  Noah, who  as an  immediate
son  of Lamech,  of necessity became a  substitute calendar  reference, even 
though he  was not born  the year of  Lamech’s death.  Thus  the flood events
are all dated by the life span of Noah (Gen. 7:6,11; Gen. 8:4,5,13,14).

.    When  Noah died 350 years after  the flood, the same situation prevailed
that  existed when Adam died.  Few people lived upon the earth, and no  one
met the conditions required  to become the next reference patriarch.  When
Shem  died 152  years after  Noah, the child Arpachshad, a descendant of Shem,
was born in the same  year and he became the next patriarch.  The calendar was
then continued in this same fashion until Terah was born.

.    When  Terah  was  born  he  was  the reference patriarch.  But during his
life span  God brought into being the  nation of Israel through  Terah’s 
immediate  son,  Abram.  Thus the descendant of Terah  who  was  born  the 
year  of Terah’s death was outside the Messianic line  and outside of God’s 
chronological purposes.  God effectively  had narrowed  men down  to the 
family of Abram.  The normal method of calendar keeping was set aside in  the
absence of patriarchs who qualified.  When Abraham died, no descendant of his
was born the year of his  death.  When Isaac, the immediate son of Abraham, 
died, the  same situation  prevailed.  This was repeated when Jacob, the 
immediate son Isaac, died.  But  in the year that Levi, the immediate  son of
Jacob  died, a descendant  of Levi was born  whose  name  was  Kohath,  and 
he  apparently  met  the qualifications  of a  reference patriarch.  Thus he
continued the calendar line  as we have seen.  Amram  followed Kohath, and
Aaron followed  Amram.  Interestingly  it can  be shown  that in  a real sense
Aaron’s generation continued until Christ’s began 1981 years ago.(6)

.    A chronology beginning with Adam may now be set forth.  To tie this
genealogical  table to our  present calendar, synchronization between  the 
Biblical  and  secular  histories  should  be found.  Because so much work 
has been done in recent  times, particularly in relationship to the dating of
the kings  of Israel, this can be done  rather readily.  Edwin R. Thiele, in
his book The Mysterious Numbers of  the Hebrew Kings established the  date of
the death of solomon  and the  division of  the kingdom  as 931  B.C.(7) 
Since Solomon reigned 40  years (I Kings  11:42) and began  building the
temple  in  the  fourth  year  of  his  reign  (I Kings 6:1), this building
began  in the  year 967  B.C.  this  date in  turn can be related to the 
exodus because in at least two  places God gives a time  bridge from the 
exodus to the  building of the temple.  The first is recorded in  I Kings 6:1,
where 480 years is indicated as the time span between these events.  The
second can be shown from the chronology of the Hebrew judges.(8)

.    A time span of 480 years brings us to 1447 B.C. as the date of the
Exodus.  If we work back from this date to Adam, we arrive at the date for
Adam as 11013 B. C.  The key dates are as follows:

        Creation of Adam                  11013 B.C.
        Seth born                          10883 B.C.
        Enosh’s generation            10778-9873 B.C.
        Kenan’s generation            9873-8963 B.C.
        Mahalel’s generation          8963-8068 B.C.
        Jared’s generation            8068-7106 B.C.
        Enoch’s generation            7106-6741 B.C.
        Methuselah’s generation        6741-5772 B.C.
        Lamech born                        5772 B.C.
        Noah born                          5990 B.C.
        Flood                          4990-4989 B.C.
        Arpachshad’s generation        4488-4050 B.C.
        Shelah’s generarion            4050-3617 B.C.
        Eber’s generation              3617-3153 B.C.
        Peleg’s generarion            3153-2914 B.C.
        Reu’s generation              2914-2675 B.C.
        Serug’s generation            2675-2445 B.C.
        Nahor’s generation            2445-2297 B.C.
        Terah born                          2297 B.C.
        Abram born                          2167 B.C.
        Isaac born                          2067 B.C.
        Jacob born                          2007 B.C.
        Entrance into Egypt                1877 B.C.
        Exodus                              1447 B.C.
        Foundation of temple laid            967 B.C.
        Division of Kingdom                  931 B.C.

The First Civilization

.    The development of a  Biblical chronology beginning with  Adam is
interesting, but will it  hold up when compared with  the known facts  of 
secular  history?  To  ascertain  this,  the  earliest civilization of
antiquity  will next be examined  to determine its location and the time of
its emergence. 

.    The threshold of history appears to be located in  the area of the
present nation of Iraq.  Albright writes:(9)

        Archaeological research  has established that there
        is  no focus of civilization  in the earth that can
        begin to compete in antiquity and activity with the
        basin of the  Eastern Mediterranean and  the region
        immediately to the east of it…The Obeidan is  the
        earliest  clearly  defined  culture  of  Babylonia,
        where we find its remains underlying nearly all the
        oldest  cities of  the country,  such as  Ur, Erch,
        Lagash,  Eridu,  etc.  This  proves  that  the
        occupation of the marshlands of Babylonia by  human
        settlers  came  rather  late  in  history  of  the
        irrigation culture, probably not far from 3700 B.C.

.    Thus  the archaeological  evidence shows  that the location of the  first 
civilization  after  the  flood was in the Mesopotamia Valley, and this agrees
exactly with the Bible, for it reports the first cities were Babylon, Erech,
Nineveh, etc. (Gen. 10:10, 11).

.    The  date  of  3700  B.C.  suggested by Albright is apparently
satisfactory to most  archaeologists.  M. B. Rowton writes that in Uruk,  one 
of  the  most  ancient Mesopotamia sites, the earliest level of  monumental
buildings is that of  the level known as Uruk V.  He concludes,(10)  “the
beginning of  Uruk V can  plausibly be dated 3500 B.C.”  These  dates of 3500
or 3700  B.C. are estimates arrived at by starting at  a more clearly defined
historical point and  allowing  a  reasonable  period  of  time  for  each
level of occupation  prior  to  this.  Thus,  the  archaeological evidence
appears to  indicate that  prior to  about 3700  B.C. there was no substantial
civilization began to be formed in the plains of Sumer in the land of Babylon,
Erech, Ur, etc.
.    How  does this time compare  with the Biblical chronology?  In Genesis 10
the  notice is given  that the first  building activity after the flood is
that of Nimrod, the beginning of  whose kingdom was Babel,  Erech and  Accad,
all  of them  in the  land of Shinar (Gen.  10:10).  But  when  did  Nimrod 
come upon the scene?  His genealogical  descent  is  that  of  Noah, Ham,
Cush, Nimrod (Gen. 10:1,6,8).  The Bible  offers no  timetable for  this side
of the family  tree,  but  it  does  offer  precise information regarding
another branch, that of Noah, Shem, Arpachshad and Shelah.  If the
genealogical statements  of the Bible  are studied one  might note that very
often two branches of the tree are offered.  One is that of  the descendants
leading  eventually to Christ  and about which precise timetables are  given,
as we have seen.  The second is the genealogical descent of that  side of the
family which turned away from  God.  It can be shown that  the timetable of
these two lines run roughly parallel.(11)

.    It thus  may be assumed that Ham  and Shem were contemporaries (they 
obviously  were,  inasmuch  as  they  were  brothers), that Arpachshad  and
Cush  were nearly  contemporaries, and that Shelah and Nimrod were probably
men of the same period of history.  Thus, if  Shelah’s date is  known, it may 
be surmised that Nimrod’s was close to the same date. 

.    Shela’s date by  Biblical reckoning was  that of 4050  B.C. to 3617 B.C. 
Nimrod then must have lived about this time.  The Bible would thus suggest a
date  of about 3900 to 3617 for  the founding of the  great cities  of the 
Mesopotamia Valley.  Thus the  date suggested by the  evidence of archaeology
(3700-3500) accords very well with the Biblical statement. 

.    It is of  more than passing  interest in this  connection that the name
Nimrod has  left its mark on the Mesopotamia Valley.  The great archaeologist
George Rawlinson writes:(12)

        The  remarkable  ruin  generally  called  Ahkerhuf,
        which lies  a little to the  south-west of Baghdad,
        is known to many as the “Tel-Nimrod”; the great dam
        across  the    Tigris  below    Mosul  is    the
        `Suhr-el-Nimrud’;  one of  the chief  of the buried
        cities  in the same neighborhood is called `Nimrud’
        simply;  and the name  of `Birs-Nimrud’ attaches to
        the grandest mass of ruins in the lower country.

The Confusion of Tongues

.    The  next  bit  of  history  that  should  be  interesting  to
investigate  is the  event of  the tower  of Babel.  Is there any secular
evidence that relates to the  account of this confusion of tongues as set
forth in Gensis 11?  There is, indeed.

.    It might first of all be noted that  the account of Genesis 11 indicates
that prior  to this time  in history all  men spoke  one language.  Moreover, 
the leading  civilization was  that of these people  who dwelt in the plains 
of Shinar or Sumer.  Their desire to  be  the  one  great  civilization  of 
the  world prompted the building  of  this  great  tower,  which  in turn
brought on God’s interference with their plans so that they were forced to
separate into various nations.

.    As has already been shown, the first great civilization of the world as
revealed by secular evidence was  that which sprang forth in  the  Mesopotamia 
Valley.  The  time  of the beginning of the second  important  civilization 
of  antiquity  could  be  of real significance.  Presumably, it would  have
begun very shortly after the tower of Babel.  The event of the  tower of Babel
can be known to  have occurred during  the generaton of  Peleg, for in his
days the earth was  divided (Gen.10:25).  Peleg’s generation  was dated 3153
B.C. to  2914 B.C.  Therefore  one would expect  no important civilizations 
other than  Babylonia to  have an antiquity greater than about 3150 B.C.

Egypt Becomes A Great Civilization

.    All  archaeological  evidence  points  to  Egypt as the second great
civilization to appear.  While there was a primitive culture in Egypt prior to
the First  Dynasty, the uniting of all of  Egypt under Pharaoh Menes to form
the First Dynasty was the signal for a major burst in the arts of
civilization.  Albright writes:(13)

        It  is  now  certain  that  the  level  of Egyptian
        culture  remained  considerably  below  that  of
        Mesopotamia  until  the  First  Dynasty, when under
        strong  indirect  influence  from  the  Euphrates
        Valley,  it  forged  ahead  of  the  latter  in  a
        breathtaking spurt.

.    Interestingly,  the new  civilization of  Egypt beginning with the First 
Dynasty was patterned after the Babylonia (Mesopotamia) culture.  Albright

        The close of the predynastic  Age and the beginning
        of  the  Thinite  (period  of  first two centuries)
        period  witnessed  a  sudden  burst  in the arts of
        civilization.  This seems to have been connected in
        some  way  with  an  increase of cultural influence
        from Asia, since there are numerous exact parallels
        between  Mesopotamia and  Egyptian culture  at this
        time, the former being demonstrably older and  more
        original in nearly every instance.

.    The date of the beginning of the First Dynasty  under Menes is calculated
to  be somewhere between  2800 B.C. and  3100 B.C.  The early  archaeologists
such  as Breasted  dated his  reign at about 3400 B.C.  As new archaeological
evidence was  uncovered this date was moved forward to about  3000 B.C. 
Albright believes 2850 B.C. is a good estimate.(15)  William C. Hayes suggest
3100 B.C. is the best date presently available.(16)

.    Considering the  above information, one is  struck by the fact that prior
to about  3100 B.C. to 2850 B.C.  only one civilization of  consequence 
existed  in  the  world.  That was the nation of Babylonia on the plains of
Shinar.  Then at that time, in a sudden burst  of  progress,  Egypt  grew  to 
become  a  second  great civilization, a civilization patterned after the
first.  And these dates are in almost exact agreement with the Biblical date
for the Tower of Babel.  Surely the confusion  of tongues as  recorded in
Genesis  11 sent thousands  of people skilled  in all the arts and crafts of
Mesopotamia to Egypt and elsewhere.  Thus accord can be seen between the 
sacred and the secular records  by this indirect evidence of the timetable of
the civilizations of antiquity.

Writing and the Tower of Babel

.    It  might  be  noted  too  that  writing  had its beginning in
Mesopotamia and may be related  to the confusion of tongues.  Sir Leonard
Wooley writes:(17) “All the archaeological  evidence seems to  prove  that 
true  writing  was  first  developed  in southern Mesopotamia.” The timing 
for this event is given  as 3500 to 3000 B.C.  Gelb  concludes:(18)  “the 
date  of  the  earliest Sumerian writing should be set tentatively at about
3100 B.C.”

.    The  confusion of  tongues in  Sumer some  time in  the period between 
3150-2900  B.C.  could  well  have been the catalyst that produced  writing. 
Before  this  dramatic civilization-splitting event all  was secure.  Only
one  language was  spoken in all the world.  Verbal  communication  was 
adequate and dependable.  But then  came this fearful  event that shook  the
very foundations of this  great  civilization.  Men  could  no longer
understand each other.  There must be a better way.  The application of the
spoken word to clay tablets  would provide insurance that this  kind of a
happening would never totally  destroy a culture again.  The clay tablets 
would always prove to be the reference point.  One surely can see  the
possibility if not the probability of this connection between writing and the
Tower of Babel.

.    We  thus  see  that  the  chronology of history established by Biblical 
reckoning  agrees  rather  satisfactorily  with  the archaeological 
evidence  of  the  earliest  civilizations.  The Biblical timetable is of
course the most reliable, for it is God’s Word.  If we have properly
interpreted it, it should make possible a far more  definitive analysis of the
secular  evidence than ever before.  It should also provide a dependable
framework in which to understand dating  evidence such  as that  offered by 
radiometric isotopes like carbon 14.

.    Hopefully, a perspective  of history has  been set forth  that shows that
answers are  potentially forthcoming when we begin with the Biblical
framework.  The  concept of a 13,000 year  old world, which  began to  be
repopulated  again after  the flood some 7,000 years ago, and which  1,500
years later had grown to a point which allowed the spawning of the first great 
cities, surely makes much more sense than that of mankind being  around for
hundreds or even thousands  of  milleniums,  and  then  becoming  a  cohesive 
city civilization  only  in  the  last  5,500  years.  Furthermore, the
apparent  possibility of the end of  the age occurring in our time also
accords far better with the shorter timetable.

.    Admittedly,  the first  purpose of  the Bible  is not  to be a textbook 
of  science  or  history.  It  is  fundamentally  a presentation  of
God’s  grace revealed  through Jesus Christ.  But when the  Bible does speak 
in any field  of learning, it  does so with great care,  accuracy and
authority.  Three  reasons might be advanced for this: l. These subjects are
often an integral part of the plan of salvation; 2.  they are part of God’s
message  to man; and  3.  by  reason  of  His  very  nature God is accurate
when He speaks.  Therefore, it possibly has much  more to offer than many
have supposed.  I hope  that others  will be  encouraged to build upon the
suggestions offered in this presentation.


              Events                                        B.C.
CREATION. (about 13,000 years ago)………………………11013
CREATION OF ADAM………………………………………11013
BIRTH OF SETH. Adam was 130 when Seth was born
(Gen. 5:6)……………………………………………10883
BIRTH OF ENOS. Seth was 105 when Enos was born
END OF ENOS’S PERIOD 905 years after his birth
(Gen. 5:11) which is the year Kenan was born and
which began his period………………………………….9873
END OF KENAN’S PERIOD 910 years after his birth
(Gen. 5:14).  This is the year Mahalaleel was born
and beginning of his period……………………………..8963
END OF MAHALALEEL’S PERIOD 895 years after his
birth (Gen.5:17).  This is the year Jared was born
and beginning of his period……………………………..8068
END OF JARED’S PERIOD 962 years after his birth
(Gen.5:20).  This is the year Enoch was born and
beginning of his period…………………………………7106
END OF ENOCH’S PERIOD 365 years after his birth
(Gen. 5:23).  This is the year Methuselah was born
and beginning of his period……………………………..6741
END OF METHUSELAH’S PERIOD 969 years after his
birth (Gen. 5:27).  This is the year Lamech was
born and beginning of his period…………………………5772
BIRTH OF NOAH.  Lamech was 182 when Noah was
born (Gen. 5:28,29)…………………………………….5590
THE FLOOD (about 7,000 years ago).  Noah was 600
when the flood came (Gen. 7:6)…………………………..4990
DEATH OF SHEM 502 years after the flood 
(Gen. 11:10,11).  This is the year Arpachshad
was born and beginning of his period……………………..4488
END OF ARPACHSHAD’S PERIOD 438 years after his
birth (Gen. 11:12,13).  This is the year Shelah
was born and beginning of his period……………………..4050
END OF SHELAH’S PERIOD 433 years after his birth
(Gen. ll:14,15).  This is the year Eber was born
and beginning of his period……………………………..3617
END OF EBER’S PERIOD 464 years after his birth
(Gen. 11:16,17).  This is the year Peleg was born
  and beginning of his period……………………………..3153
During Peleg’s patriarchal period the division of   
the continents occurred.  The Tower of Babel must
have occurred between these dates (Gen. 10:25)………..3153-2914
END OF PELEG’S PERIOD  239 years after his birth
(Gen. 11:18,19).  This is the year Reu was born
and beginning of his period……………………………..2914
END OF REU’S PERIOD 239 years after his birth
(Gen. 11:20,21).  This is the year Serug was
born and beginning of his period…………………………2675
END OF SERUG’S PERIOD 230 years after his
birth (Gen. 11:22,23).  This is the year Nahor
was born and beginning of his period……………………..2445
END OF NAHOR’S PERIOD 148 years after his
birth (Gen. 11:24,25).  This is the year Terah
was born and beginning of his period……………………..2297
BIRTH OF ABRAM TO TERAH. Terah was 130 years
old at birth of Abram…………………………………..2167
ABRAM ENTERED CANAAN……………………………………2092
years of age…………………………………………..2068
BIRTH OF ISAAC. Abraham was 100 years old at
birth of Isaac (Gen. 21:5)………………………………2067
BIRTH OF JACOB. Isaac was 60 years old at birth
of Jacob (Gen. 25:26)…………………………………..2007
    1. Jacob arrives in Haran at the age of………..60
    2. He works seven years for Rachel and is
      then married to Rachel and Leah.  He is then…67
    3. Reuben is born to Leah the following year
      when Jacob is…………………………….68
    4. Simeon is born next to Leah when Jacob is……69
    5. Levi is born next to Leah when Jacob is……..70
    6. Jacob finishes his second seven year
      contract for Rachel when he is……………..74
    7. He works for wages for 20 years.  In the
      17th year of this period Joseph is born.
      Jacob is…………………………………91
    8. At end of the 20 year period Joseph is
      weaned and Jacob wishes to leave Haran. He is..94
    9. He works six years longer for his flocks
      and leaves Haran at age…………………..100
is 130 (Gen. 47:9)                                            1877

    The Chronological Sequence During the Egyptian Sojourn

Remembering that  the death year  of one patriarch  coincides with the birth
year of the next, the result must look like this:

Levi’s Time in Egypt (137 minus 60)…………………..77 Years
Kohath’s Period of Patriarchal Leadership…………….133 Years
Amram’s Period of Patriarchal Leadership……………..137 Years
Aaron’s Age at the Time of the Exodus (Exod. 7:7)………83 Years
Total…………………………………………….430 Years

        Historical Timetable of Pharaohs and Dynasties

1888 B.C. – Sesostris III  became  Pharaoh.  He  was  part  of the Middle
Kingdom or 12th Dynasty of Egypt.  His father, Sesostris II, probably had 
reigned during  the previous  19 years  and possibly came to an untimely

1886 B.C. – Jospeh became Prime Minister or Grand  Vizier of Egypt under
Sesostris III.

1877 B.C. –  The  family  of  Joseph  came  to  Egypt  and took up residence
in the  land of Goshen.  The city of Avaris (Zoan in the Bible), which later
was called Tanis or Qantir, was their capital.

1850 B.C. – Sesostris III  died  after  an exceedingly  successful reign of 38
years.  He was succeeded by another great 12th Dynasty Pharaoh named Amenemhet
III.  Under his reign  Joseph continued as Prime Minister.  A canal bearing
Joseph’s name was  constructed at this time.

1806 B.C. – Joseph died.

1802 B.C. – Amenemhet III died after a 48 year reign.  During his reign 
Egypt  was  prosperous,  tranquil  and  productive.  He was succeeded  by
Amenemhet IV  who reigned for  the brief period of 9 years.  During  his reign
there was much internal strife for royal supremacy.

1791 B.C. – Amenemhet IV  died  and  was succeeded  by  the  last Pharaoh of
the 12th Dynasty, Sebeknefrure.

1787 B.C. – Sebeknefrure’s  brief reign  of 4 years ended and with it ended
the 12th Dynasty.  The 13th Dynasty began.  The reigns of succeeding Pharaohs
were short  and the empire began  to dissolve.  The Israelites, who  no doubt
are  the “Hyksos” of  Archaeological fame, took advantage of the internal
struggles to acquire a strong hand  in the Egyptian government and  indeed
some of them may have reigned as Pharaohs during this period.

1580 B.C. (approx.) – Several  dynasties  have  ruled  over  Egypt since 1787
B.C.  At this time Ahmose I began to reign as the first king  of  the  18th 
Dynasty.  He  forcibly  began  to remove the Israelites  (Hyksos)  from 
political  power.  The  most war-like Israelites were  driven from the  land
and the  Israelitish nation began to be  severely oppresed.  Either this
Pharaoh  or a closely succeeding  Pharaoh such  as  Thutmose I could  well
have been the king who “did not know Joseph” (Exod. 1:8).

1560 B.C. (approx.) – Ahmose I was followed by his son Amenhotep I who
consolidated the gains of his father.

1540-1535 B.C. (approx.) – Thutmose I began to reign as king.  He too was  a
continuation  of the  18th Dynasty.  He continued  and probably  intensified 
the  oppressive  measures  against  the Israelites, for he was ruling when 
Moses was born.  His animosity toward the Israelites was probably heightened
by his troubles with Palestine  and Syria.  His  reign was followed  by that
of his son Thutmose II.

1527 B.C. – Moses was born at  a time when a royal edict condemned all  the 
boy  babies  to  be  destroyed.  Princess Hatshepsut, a daughter of the king,
found him in the bulrushes and raised him as her son.

1501 B.C. – Thutmose III began  to reign as  the  greatest king of the  18th
Dynasty.  For approximately  the first  25 years of his reign he  was co-
regent  with Princess  Hatshepsut.  She  regarded herself  as  a  king  and 
was  the  dominant  ruler  during  this co-regency.

1487 B.C. – Moses  fled  from  Egypt.  King  Hatshepsut,  who  had      raised 
him  to  be  her  son,  sought  to kill him because of his evident loyalty for
the Israelites. 1481  B.C. (approx.) – King Hatshepsut died and Thutmose III 
con-tinued to reign until the time of the exodus.

Israel went out of Egypt (Thutmose III)……..1447 B.C.
Israel entered into Canaan…………………1407 B.C.

    EXODUS FROM EGYPT 430 years later
    (Exod. 12:40)…………………………1447 B.C.
    ENTRANCE INTO CANAAN 40 years later……..1407 B.C.

Chronology of the Judges        B.C.    Israel Chronology  Years
The Exodus                      1447
Entrance into Canaan            1407
Initial 40 year Period in  1407-1367    Land had rest      40 
  Canaan. During this         
  period the conquest of                  Land had rest      80
  Canaan occurred under
  Joshua and Othniel de-       
  livered Israel.
Next 80 Year Period in      1367-1287
  Canaan.  During this
  Period Ehud and Shamgar
  deliver Israel                          Land had rest      40
Next 40 year Period in      1287-1247
  Canaan.  Deborah and                    Land had rest      40
  Barak were deliverers                  Abimelech rules    3
  during this period
Gideon judged              1247-1207    Tola judged        23
Abimelech rules            1207-1204    Jair judged        22
Tola judged                1204-1181
Jair judged                1181-1159
Jephthah judged            1159-1153    Jephthah judged    6
Ibzan judged                1153-1146    Ibzan judged        7
Elon judged                1146-1136    Elon judged        10
Abon judged                1136-1128    Abon judged        8
Samson judged              1128-1108    Samson judged      20
Eli judged                  1108-1068    Eli judged        40
Ark in Philistines’hands    1068-1067    Ark captured        1
Samuel judged              1067-1047    Final period of
Saul reigned as king        1047-1007      Samuel          20 
David reigned              1007- 967                      360
Solomon reigned              971- 931
  Foundation of temple
  laid in fourth year of
  Solomon’s reign                967


              Note on Oppression By Heathen Power

Israel served Cushanrishathaim        8 years        Judges 3:8
Israel served Eglon                  18 years              3:14
Israel oppressed by Jabin            20 years              4:3
Israel in hand of Midian              7 years              6:1
Philistines oppressed Israel        18 years              10:8
Israel in hand of Philistines        40 years              13:1
                                                  I Samuel 4:18
                                    111 years


Events                          Date
Saul  king                    1047 B.C.  (about 3,000 years ago) 
David                        1007 B.C.
Solomon                        971 B.C.
Temple Foundation laid        967 B.C.
Solomon’s temple con-          967 B.C.
    struction began 480
    years after exodus
    (I Ki. 6:1)
Division of kingdom at        931 B.C.
    death of Solomon 36
    years later


    Chronological Table of the Kings of the Divided Kingdom

                        JUDAH (2 Tribes)
King                        Reign                      Character
1. Rehoboam          931-913 B.C. (17 yrs )              Bad 
2. Abijah            913-911      ( 3 yrs.)              Bad
3. Asa                911-870      (41 yrs.)              Good
4. Jehoshaphat        873-848*    (25 yrs.)              Good
5. Jehoram            853-841*    ( 8 yrs.)              Bad
6. Ahaziah            841          ( 1 yr. )              Bad
7. Athaliah          841-835      ( 6 yrs.)              Bad
8. Joash              835-796      (40 yrs.)              Good
9. Amaziah            796-767      (29 yrs.)              Good
10.Azariah            792-740*    (52 yrs.)              Good
    (or Uzziah)
11.Jotham            750-732*    (16 yrs.)              Good
12.Ahaz              735-716      (16 yrs.)              Bad
13.Hezekiah          716-687      (29 yrs.)              Good
14.Manasseh          697-643                              Bad
15. Amon              643-641      ( 2 yrs.)              Bad
16.Josiah            641-609      (31 yrs.)              Good
17.Jehoahaz          609          ( 3 mo. )              Bad
18.Jehoiakim          609-598      (11 yrs.)              Bad
    (or Eliakim)
19.Jehoiachin        608-597*                            Bad
    (or Coniah,       
20.Zedekiah          597-587                              Bad
    (or Mattaniah)

        (Destruction of Jerusalem and captivity of Judah)
* Co-regency

                      ISRAEL (10 Tribes) 
King                        Reign                    Character
1. Jeroboam I        931-910 B.C. (22 yrs.)              Bad
2. Nadab              910-909      ( 2 yrs.)              Bad
3. Baasha            909-886      (24 yrs.)              Bad
4. Elah              886-885      ( 2 yrs.)              Bad
5. Zimri              885          ( 7 days)              Bad
6. Tibni              885-880     
7. Omri              885-874*    (12 yrs.)              Bad
8. Ahab              874-853      (22 yrs.)              Bad
9. Ahaziah            853-852      ( 2 yrs.)              Bad
10.Joram              852-841      (12 yrs.)              Bad
11.Jehu              841-814      (28 yrs.)              Bad
12.Jehoahaz          814-798      (17 yrs.)              Bad
13.Jehoash            798-782      (16 yrs.)              Bad
14.Jeroboam II        793-753*    (41 yrs.)              Bad
15.Zechariah          753-752      ( 6 mo. )              Bad
16.Shallum            752          ( l mo. )              Bad
17.Menahem            752-742      (10 yrs.)              Bad
18.Pekahiah          742-740      ( 2 yrs,)              Bad
19.Pekah              752-732*    (20 yrs.)              Bad
20.Hoshea            732-722      ( 9 yrs.)              Bad
          (Capture of Samaria and captivity of Israel)

              Remnants of these 10 tribes joined
              with nation of Judah, which is then called Israel.
* Co-regency


Israel (10 tribes) destroyed                          722 B.C.   
Israel (Judah augmented by remnants from
    10 tribes) subdued by Egypt                        609 B.C.
Israel taken in to Babylonian captivity
    and temple destroyed                              587 B.C.
Babylonia conquered by Cyrus, king of
    Medes and Persians (under Cyrus
    first contingent of Jews returns to
    Jerusalem)                                        539 B.C.
Temple partially rebuilt and rededicated              515 B.C.
Ezra returned to Jerusalem to reestablish law        458 B.C.
Rebuilding of wall by Nehemiah                        445 B.C.


Christ was born                                        7 B.C.
Christ was baptized                                    29 A.D.
Christ died on cross                                  33 A.D.
Jerusalem destroyed by Romans                          70 A.D.

(1)  Compare Genesis 7:13, 9:18 and I Peter 3:20

(2)  Compare Genesis 11:27 ff, Genesis 12:4 and Acts 7:4

(3)  For example, Genesis 10:21  describes  Shem as “the father of all 
children  of Eber,” though Eber is  removed from Shem by several generations
(cf. Genesis 11:10-16)

(4)  The fact that Jesus was born a few  years earlier (probably 7 B.C.) does
not diminish the force of this argument, for  1981 A.D.  is in principle
related only to Christ’s birth date and not to any other.

(5)  Camping, Harold. Adam When? Ch. 3

(6)  Ibid., ch. 6

(7)  Thiele, Edwin R., The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, Eerdmans, 
Rev.  edition  1965,  pg.  53,54.  Much additional support can be  given to
the  accuracy of this  date from the reigns  of three of  the greatest of  the
Egyptian Pharaohs – Sesostris III, Tuthmosis III and Rameses II.  A discussion
of  this is of course beyond the scope of this artice.

(8)  Camping, Harold; ch. 5

(9)  Albright,  William  Foxwell;  From  the  Stone Age to Christianity,
Doubleday and Co., Inc. 1957, pg. 32

(10) Rowton, M. B.,  in The Cambridge  Ancient History,  Cambridge University
Press, 1964, pg. 57,58

(11) Camping, Harold, ch. 7

(12) Rawlinson, George,  Egypt and  Babylon, John  W. Lovell  Co., pg. 9

(13) Albright, pg. 142

(14) Ibid., pg. 157

(15) Ibid.

(16) Hayes, William C., The Cambridge Ancient History, 1964, pg. 4

(17) Wooley, Sir  Leonard, The Beginnings of Civilization, The New York
American Library, 1965, pg. 364

(18) Gelb, A Study of Writing, pg. 63


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