Baha'i World Faith
Written by: Computers for Christ Posted on: 04/29/2003
Category: Cults / Sects / Non Christian Religions and Topics
Baha'i World Faith
The Baha'i World Faith claims to be a religion of unique
relevance to the modern world. Few cults are better adapted to the
mentality of the 20th century than this one. Its emphasis upon
rationalism, human rights, international peace, education, equality of
the sexes, and the eradication of all forms of prejudice gives the
Baha'i Faith a very broad base of appeal. The Baha'i cry for one
world religion appeals to the ecumenical spirit of the age, especially
in light of the continuing insistence that Baha'is are in perfect
harmony with the Christian Faith. We will look into several areas of
The Baha'i World Faith has had its headquarters on Mt. Carmel in
Haifa, Israel, since 1949. In America the center for the Baha'is is
in Wilmette, Illinois, where a 3 million dollar temple draws over
100,00 visitors a year according to their spokesmen. Additional
temples are located in Frankfurt, Germany; Kampala, Uganda; and
Sidney, Australia. Though each one is different, they are all nine-
sided (Nine has religious significance to Baha'is) and each is covered
with a dome.
Since they are convinced they have a message the entire world
should hear, Baha'is have a strong missionary emphasis. They are
active in more than 250 countries, and though world wide missionary
work has been limited to the 20th century, total membership totals
over 5 million. The 60's and the 70's witnessed very strong growth,
especially in the United States (special emphasis in California),
where a large percentage of the membership consists of minorities and
youth. California membership constitutes over 25% of the membership
The Baha'is have three levels of administration. A minimum of
nine believers is sufficient to constitute a local spiritual assembly,
which elects a nine member administrative body each year. These
centers have no clergy or house of worship. They employ only teachers
who conduct "Firesides" or discussion groups in homes or Baha'i
centers. The second level of Baha'i is the National Spiritual
Assembly of nine members elected each year by the delegates to the
faith's national conventions. The very top level is the UNIVERSAL
HOUSE OF JUSTICE, which is another nine member body elected every FIVE
years by the national spiritual assemblies throughout the world.
Although the House of Justice serves presently as the governing body
for a "world" religion, its ultimate intention is to serve as the
FINAL GOVERNING AUTHORITY for ALL THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD.
It is amazing that most of the various texts found on this faith
are duplicates of the media handed out by BAHA'I themselves! You will
note here, however, that the author makes careful examination of the
HISTORICAL record and the BIBLICAL record (if existent) to arrive at
our text files. We can do no different, so we stay away from
Encyclopedia Brittanica, etc. and look to History for the history of
Iran, the birthplace of the Baha'i Faith, has long been a Muslim
nation. The Persians (present day Iran) embraced the Shi'ite sect of
Islam rather than the larger, more democratic Sunni sect, which is the
more traditional form of Islam. The Shi'ites believe that Ali, the
son-in-law of Muhammad and the last of the four universally recognized
caliphs (rulers of the faith in temporal matters), was succeeded to
the caliphate by twelve of his descendants, called Imams. The Shi'ite
sect, alone, recognizes these twelve as divinely appointed leaders of
Islam, and they came to be regarded as sinless, supernatural beings.
The twelfth Imam mysteriously disappeared without leaving an heir, and
the belief began in the Shi'ites that he was still alive and would one
day return as the Messiah, or Mahdi. In addition, some schools among
the Shi'ites began to teach that the Imams were manifestations of
deity, a belief against orthodox Islam, which denies even the
possibility of divine incarnation.
Periodically, especially during times of oppression, men would
arise claiming to be the Hidden Imamorhis appointed channel of grace.
This was especially true in the early nineteenth century when
political and religious reform was badly needed in Persia and when the
1,000 years that Shi'ite tradition affirmed would pass between the
disappearance and return of the Hidden Imam was nearly completed. One
such man was Shaykh Amad al-Ahsa, whose followers were called
"Shaykhis." He and his successor, Sayyid Kazim, were both called Bab
(The gate between the Hidden Imam and mankind). They claimed to be in
contact with the Hidden Imam and proclaimed that he would soon become
After the death of Kazim, the sect became divided between those
who believed that the new successor was Hajji Karim Khan of Kirman and
a much larger faction which followed Sayyid Ali Muhannad of Shiraz.
The latter proclaimed in 1844 that he was the Bab, a manifestation of
God, the Mahdi for whom all had waited. The first group continued
under the name of Shaykhis; the latter were called Babis.
Sayyid Ali Muhammad of Shirazwas born in 1820, descendant of the
family of Muhammad. He was quiet and modest and, as he grew older,
became studious and pious. He made a pilgrimage to the shrine of the
Imams near Bagdad, where he met Sayyid Kazim and became strongly
influenced by Shaykhi doctrine. When Kazim died, the movement
temporarily lacked a leader. Becoming convinced of his own divine
mission, the Bab gathered eighteen "apostles," whom he called the
"Letters of the Living." They began to proclaim vigorously his
"divine" identity and mission, which met with varying response in
different cities. Some eagerly accepted the "good news," while others
reacted with hostility And, in some cases, violence. "...in the
History of Islam, putting forward a claim to be the Hidden Imam has
always been connected with political uprising." In order to prevent
this, the Persian authorities imprisoned the Bab. However; because
the people were looking for a deliverer, the movement spread. While
in prison, the Bab wrote a number of books and had visits from his
In the spring of 1848, while the Bab was still alive in prison,
the babi leaders met in conference where they declared the laws of the
Islamic dispensation had now been abrogated in the same way that
Muslims believe that the Islamic dispensation replaced the Christian
revelation. They decided that rather than being the twelfth Imam, the
Bab was the prophet of the new dispensation in place of Muhammad.
This declaration placed the Bab clearly outside of the Islamic fold
and invited the utmost hostility from the traditional Muslims.
After the Babis sought forcefully to gain control of the province
of Mazanderan, a succession of conflicts with the Persian government
resulted that led to the mass defeat of the Babis and in 1850, the
execution of Bab.
Those writings of the Bab which have been preserved are called
the Bayan (translated = utterance or exposition). The Bab was
convinced that his works were superior TO ALL OTHERS, that they were
inimitable, and that they replaced Muhammad's Quran (KORAN) as the
scripture relevant to the present age. He cited the supposedly
superior quality of his writings as proof of his divine mission, just
as Muhammad had compared his writings to the Bible. The Bayan
includes religious and social laws for the universal theocracy of this
As Baha'is claim, the Bab taught that one would come after him
who would be greater than he. In the Bayan there are seventy
references to "He whom God will manifest."
SUBH-I-AZAL and BAHA
In keeping with the Shi'ite belief that Muhammad appointed his
son-in-law to the caliphate before his death, the Bab appointed the
vice regency of his movement to Mizra Yahya Subh-I-Azal, Subh-I-Azal
continued as the ruler of the Babi community for about sixteen years.
This appointment is noted in the book NUQ tatu 'L-kaf, which is a
history of the babi movement written in 1851 by an "authorized" Babi,
Mizra Jani. There is no historical evidence to the contrary, though
Baha'i histories omit mention of this appointment of Subh-I-Azal.
Subh-I-Azal instructed his followers to lay aside the sword, and
under his leadership, the movement continued to grow with little
opposition. He was assisted in the leadership of the movement by his
older half-brother, Mizra Husayn Ali, who took for his name, BAHA
Turmoil began when a number of claimants to the coming divine
manifestation arose, citing certain verses in the Bayan and ignoring
the required time span of 1,500 years. Then Azim, a devoted disciple
of the Bab, devised a plot to assasinate the Shah, which failed and
resulted in a search for Babi leaders and the execution of many. The
Mizra brothers fled Bagdad to escape.
In Bagdad, Baha became increasingly active in the leadership of
the movement, while his brother retired to seclusion in order to
contemplate and write. Baha saw that the movement needed stronger
leadership than his brother was supplying, but he recognized that
since he had not been appointed by the Bab, the only way he could
attain it would be to convince the faithful that he was "He whom God
will manifest." However; strong opposition from other leaders
prevented Baha from making any such claim at that time. In spite of
these thoughts, Baha wrote during that period in his "Book of
Certitudes" (alleged to have been a response to others who were
claiming to be the "HE") that the time interval between the Bab and He
whom God will manifest "is about 1000 years."
After ten years in Bagdad, outbreaks of violence between Muslims
and Babis forced the Turkish government to banish the Babi leaders to
Adrianople on the extreme western border of Turkey. There, with no
one nearby to oppose him, Baha declared that he was the one who should
come. He assumed the name Baha'u'llah (Glory of God), a title applied
to the Divine Manifestations in the Bayan. Baha'u'llah called upon
his brother and all the Babis to submit to him without question, since
this would be the only appropriate response to one who is GOD, and the
Bab had instructed in the Bayan that "HE" be received in that manner.
While most of the Babis accepted Baha'u'llah's claim and thus
became known as Baha'is, Subh-i-Azal and some of his followers
refused. They strongly believed that the Bab's revelation was all
sufficient for the age. They held that it was unreasonable to suggest
that the elaborate system revealed by the Bab was only to last twenty-
two years, but rather that it must be accepted and instituted for
multitudes of people for many centuries before another manifestation
would appear. After all, the Bab had indicated that it would be a
minimum of 1,511 years before "HE" would appear. They reasoned that
(1) since the Bab was infallible and (2) that he had appointed Subh-i-
Azal to succeed him, if Baha was truly "He," Subh-i-Azal would have to
recognize him. Thus the minority that remained loyal to Subh-i-Azal
continued to be called Babis (sometimes Azalis).
Baha'u'llah sought to force Subh-i-Azal to recognize him by
withholding his share of the allowance that the Turkish government had
been supplying to the exiles. As a result, Subh-i-Azal's children
fell sick due to lack of food, and his wife complained to the wife of
the Turkish governor. This "betrayal" incurred even greater wrath
from Baha'u'llah. The Baha'is responded to Babis resistance by
rewriting many Babi writings and records, degrading the Bab to a
forerunner of Baha'u'llah, the REAL prophet for the age, and MURDERING
about twenty Babis in Bagdad, Adrianople, and Akka. Two of these
Babis were brothers of Fatima, widow of the Bab; another one was her
current husband; and two were "Letters of the Living" that were
appointed by the Bab. The murderers were never punished nor disowned
by Baha'u'llah. The conflict between the two parties became so fierce
that the Turkish government separated them, sending Babis to Cypress
and the Baha'is to Akka in Palestine.
Baha'is often claim that Baha'u'llah was imprisoned most of his
life. He was in exile and was not free to leave Akka, but for the
most of his stay in Akka he was free to move about and owned palaces
and gardens that were purchased with funds supplied by his followers
in Iran and other countries.
Baha'u'llah's claim to be God put him under the difficult
pressure of having to play and live up to that role during the twenty-
six years of his life that followed. Contrary to his previous custom,
in Akka he lived largely in seclusion. No one was allowed to visit
him except by special permission.
One writer of this time wrote: "each visitor was carefully
prepared for his audience with the Manifestation of God. He was told
that what he saw when he came into the Divine Presence would depend on
what he was himself - If he was a material person he would see only a
man, but if he was a spiritual being he would see God. When his
expectations had been sufficiently aroused, the pilgrim was led into
the presence of Baha'u'llah and was permitted to gaze a few moments
upon the "Blessed Perfection", care being taken that the visitation
should end before the spell was broken. Baha'u'llah, however, did not
encourage the Baha'is in their desire to visit him..there was too
great a risk of their seeing and hearing things in Akka which might
weaken their faith. There was a saying among the Baha'is of Iran that
"whosoever went to Akka lost his faith."
In Akka Baha'u'llah recognized that the Bab had designed his
religion in a manner suitable only to Persia. He also saw that the
Bab's vision of world wide theocracy was unrealistic. Thus, in order
to promote the universal aspirations of the Babi/Baha'i religion,
Baha'u'llah ignored many of the Bayan's injunctions and sought to make
the faith appealing to the Christians and Muslims in the lands to
which the religion had spread. Baha'u'llah appealed to members of
these faiths out of their own scriptures, claiming not only to be the
one whom the Bab foretold, but also the return of the Shi'ite Hidden
Imam, the return of Christ, AND the Comforter whom Jesus said would
Baha'u'llah wrote numerous epistles called "tablets" to
believers, rulers, the Pope in Rome and other religious leaders. He
also wrote longer treatises. All are considered to be the word of
God. In all, these works number over 100. Baha'is have no definite
Canon of scripture. A small book called the AQDAS is considered the
most important of Baha'u'llah's writings, and yet no authoritative
translation of the Arabic has ever been published. One Arabic scholar
refers to them as "rehash of the Bayan."
The essence of Baha'u'llah's message is aptly summarized thus:
"His writings reached the outside world. They advocated a broad
religious view upholding the unity of God and the essential harmony of
all prophesy when rightly understood. He called upon all religions to
unite, for every religion contains some truth because all prophets are
witnesses to the one Truth that Baha'ism supremely represents. The
human race is under one God and will be united through his spirit when
the Baha'i cause is known and joined."
Baha'u'llah WARNED that NO NEW MANIFESTATION would come for 1,000
YEARS! "Whoever claims Command before completion of a thousand years
is a false liar....Whoever explains this verse or interprets it in any
other way than that plainly sent down, he will be deprived of the
Spirit and Mercy of God."
This warning is interesting because Baha'u'llah had previously
taken this very liberty with the Bab's writings, but realizing someone
after him could do just what he had done, he forbade anyone else from
taking the same liberty.
Baha'u'llah died a natural death in 1892 at the age of 74. It is
reported that between the years 1866 and 1891 about 31 Baha'is were
killed in Iran.
With the death of the Divine Manifestation, leadership of the
Baha'i movement passed to Baha'u'llah's oldest son, Abbas Effendi, who
took the name Abdul Baha (Servant of Baha). Abdul Baha was born on
May 23, 1844, which is reputed to be the same day that the Bab made
his fateful declaration of deity.
While he never claimed to be an actual Manifestation of God,
Abdul Baha proclaimed that he was the "Center of the Covenant."
Though Baha'u'llah would have objected, Abdul insisted that only HE
was the sole rightful interpreter of his father's writings and that
his writings were OF EQUAL AUTHORITY with those of Baha'u'llah. Most
of the faithful gladly accepted these claims, as to them it meant the
divine manifestation of Baha'u'llah was continuing with them through
his son. However, an opposition party arose headed by Abdul's
brother, Mizra Mohammad Ali, who had been appointed second in
succession by his father. The opposition contended that Baha'u'llah
had never made provision for his successor to take such absolute
authority, and that, in fact, only a Manifestation could rightfully
claim such authority. The opposition called themselves Unitarians and
called the rest "Violators of the Covenant. "Most of Baha'u'llah's
family members sided with the Unitarians, believing that Abdul was a
self-seeking opportunist. In return, Abdul excommunicated them and
deprived them of the funds that Baha'u'llah had arranged for them to
receive. The conflict grew extremely bitter, even to the point of
violence. The schism was especially significant because it centered
around two sons of Baha'u'llah, his appointed successors. The
Unitarians never became a strong movement and eventually disappeared
from the scene.
In the early 20th century Baha'i missionary efforts began to take
hold in Western lands. Abdul Baha himself was able to personally
promote the Baha'i Faith in Egypt, Europe, England and America after
the Turkish revolution of 1908 made Akka's political prisoners free.
Abdul was especially successful in the United States, where he
received a warm reception and good press coverage in 1912. He was
invited by Mrs. Hearst of the publishing family, which assured heavy
and favorable coverage. Abdul traveled the United States for 7
Abdul Baha died in 1921 and, by a directive in his will, was
succeeded by his grandson, Shoghi Effendi, who ruled until his death
in 1957. Abdul Baha had appointed his grandson to be the first
Guardian of the cause of God, and Shoghi Effendi made full use of the
authority vested in him, demanding absolute obedience and
excommunicating all who, in any manner, questioned him. Virtually all
of Abdul Baha's family, including his wife and Shoghi Effendi's own
parents and brothers and sisters, were eventually counted among the
excommunicants. It must be noted that loving one's own family is
depicted in the Bible as one of the most basic commands of God. The
consistent inability of Baha'u'llah and his descendants to love
members of their own family when conflicts of ambition arose hardly
confirms the reliability of the exalted claims they made and make for
Shoghi Effendi's leadership was characterized by an organization
emphasis. He worked at establishing the local and national spiritual
assemblies. He also appointed Twenty Seven Hands of the Cause, out of
which was to be formed the House of Justice; this in accordance to a
stipulation in Abdul Baha's will, would be headed by the Guardian of
the cause or someone appointed by him. The Guardianship was to be
passed on from father to firstborn son, or to another son if the
firstborn was not worthy. These were to be appointed in the
However, Shoghi Effendi died childless and never wrote a will.
As a result, confusion reigned among the Hands of the Cause as to who
would succeed the Guardian until they finally determined that there
would be no Guardian. Instead, the movement would be democratically
ruled by the nine member House of Justice, the members of which they
appointed at that time. This decision was accompanied by the (now
traditional) internal conflict, and a splinter group was formed which
appointed its own Guardian.
The "Hands'" ignoring of Abdul Baha's injunction concerning the
Guardianship was only one in a series of violations of previous
injunctions which began with Baha'u'llah himself. Baha'u'llah claimed
to be a Manifestation, thus violating the Bab's appointment of Subh-i-
Azal. In turn, Abdul Baha violated provisions in Baha'u'llah's will
that Abdul's brother Mizra Muhammad Ali should succeed him when he
appointed his grandson Shoghi Effendi, instead. Shoghi Effendi
ignored the command of Baha'u'llah that a will must be written in
order to avoid squabbles over leadership, and he also violated Abdul
Baha's provision that he should appoint a successor in his own
lifetime "that differences may not arise after his passing." Since
appointments and wills were supposedly inspired by God, Baha'i history
is filled with "inspired" violations of "inspired" injunctions.
The doctrine of Divine Manifestations is the central plank of
Baha'i theology. Through this doctrine Baha'is are able to take
seemingly amiable positions toward members of the major world
religions, for each of their founders were manifestations of God and
thus each religion has a measure of truth. On the same premise
Baha'is draw converts from other religions, for, they insist, the
other religions were for other ages while the religion of Baha'u'llah
is for today. To follow it in no way will conflict with one's native
faith, for there is truly only one faith in mankind's history, best
represented now by the Baha'is.
Though the recognized Divine Manifestations represent just about
every conceivable world view (Monotheism through Moses and Jesus,
polytheism through Krisna, Agnosticism through Buddah, and dualism
through Zoroaster), Baha'is insist that they are actually united in
purpose and teaching. The spiritually initiated see beyond the
apparent differences. In fact, Baha'u'llah warned that anyone who saw
even the slightest possible difference between their words and
messages would be guilty of disbelieving and repudiating God.
Among world religions, probably only Buddahism (in its ORIGINAL
form) and Confucianism are less concerned with man's relationship to
God than Baha'ism. The Baha'is are concerned chiefly with man's
relationship to man, as evidenced by the Baha'i thirteen "principles"
which denote social and political concerns rather than religious. In
volume 13 of "THE BAHA'I WORLD", we read: "It is the avowed faith of
Baha'is that this Revelation has established upon earth the spiritual
impulse and the definite principles necessary for social regeneration
and the attainment of one true religion and social order throughout
This understanding that the purpose of the current revelation is
SOCIAL regeneration is the reason Baha'is brush aside the Christian
emphasis upon PERSONAL regeneration as being irrelevant to the present
Baha'is follow a number of religious laws and observances.
Included among these are daily prayer, an annual period of fasting,
monogamy, and marriage only by consent of all living parents. Divorce
is permitted after a one year waiting period. Parents are under
religious obligation to educate their children, education being a KEY
WORD to Baha'i. Use of alcohol and narcotics is forbidden, as is
HARMONIC WITH CHRISTIANITY?
The Baha'i Faith is essentially rationalistic. "We must not
accept traditional dogmas that are contrary to reason, nor pretend to
believe doctrines which we cannot understand. To do so is
superstitious and not true religion." Because of this inclination to
reject any doctrine that does not seem reasonable to them, Baha'is
interpret allegorically, rather than literally, the biblical doctrines
of the Holy Trinity, the bodily Resurrection of Christ, the existence
of angels and evil spirits, and the doctrines of heaven and hell.
Yet, despite this insistence that EVERYTHING must be understood in
order to be believed, they hold that God Himself is impersonal and
UNKNOWABLE. He can only be perceived indirectly through the
reflection of his Manifestations - Jesus being ONLY ONE of these NINE,
in no manner superior to the other eight.
Baha'is deny that man fell through Adam from his original
spiritual and moral state. They affirm that no one is "essentially"
bad or evil, but merely imperfect. Sins are characteristics of the
lower, baser plane of nature, and education brings deliverance from
them. Baha'u'llah taught that men ought not to confess their sins to
one another, for this would lead to humiliation and abasement, which
he taught, are contrary to God's will.
Concerning salvation, Baha'u'llah said, "Whoso keepeth the
commandments of God shall attain everlasting felicity." And Abdul
Baha stated that there is no sin-atoning value in Christ's sacrificial
death on the cross. So inadequate was his concept of redemption that
Baha'u'llah was able to say of himself: "Fix your gaze upon Him who is
the Temple of God amongst men. He, in truth, hath offered up his life
as a ransom for the redemption of the world."
The Central conflict between Baha'u'llah's concept of salvation
and the biblical revelation on the subject is best shown in BAHA'I
WORLD FAITH where Baha'u'llah stated: "Every age has its own problem,
and every soul its particular aspiration. The remedy the world
needeth in its present day afflictions can never be the same as that
which a subsequent age may require." In CONTRAST to this, the BIBLE
teaches that the one universal problem of man throughout the ages is
sin, his state of moral guilt and consequent alienation from God.
Thus the one remedy - the only POSSIBLE remedy for mankind's dilemma -
is the death of Jesus Christ for our sins, a sacrifice sufficient to
save all who turn to Him for all time as God tells us in Hebrews 10:10
Because they fail to recognize that man fell from his original
position with God, Baha'is also fail to understand what the prophet
Jeremiah witnessed concerning the nature of man: "The heart is more
deceitful than all else and is incurably sick; who can understand it?"
As a result they believe that man is capable of keeping the
commandments of God, whereas the BIBLE emphatically declares that he
cannot in Romans 3:20 to 28 and 8:7. Not realizing that man's
problems stem from his heart, instead of the intellect, they think
that education is the ULTIMATE answer. HAVING MADE A FAULTY DIAGNOSIS
OF MAN'S SICKNESS, they have prescribed a faulty, ineffective cure.
It is somewhat ironic that the most fitting description of
Baha'u'llah's attempt to establish himself as savior and mediator
between man and God can be found in words framed by none other than
Baha'u'llah himself. Certainly, he had ANYONE BUT himself in mind
when he penned these words; yet with sobering propriety Baha'u'llah's
indictment CAN BE APPLIED TO HIMSELF: "We can perceive how the whole
human race is encompassed with great, with incalculable afflictions.
We see it languishing on its bed of sickness, sore tired and
disillusioned. They that are intoxicated by self conceit have
interposed themselves between it and the divine and infallible
Physician. Witness how they have entangled all men, themselves
included, in the mesh of their devices. THEY CAN NEITHER DISCOVER THE
CAUSE OF THE DISEASE, NOR HAVE THEY ANY KNOWLEDGE OF THE REMEDY."
Jesus Claimed to BE GOD and lived his life in a manner that
reflected truth. Jesus said that HE WAS TRUTH. Jesus rose "into the
clouds" where, we are told by the BIBLE that he "will return just as
we witnessed Him leaving" and not REINCARNATED into another person.
It is appointed unto MAN to die BUT ONCE - Then the JUDGEMENT. Jesus
was God as proven by his life. JESUS is SAVIOR as proven by His Death
AND RESURRECTION. The bodies of Baha'u'llah, the Bab, Abdul Baha and
other false prophets rot in their graves. The body of Christ is not
on Earth, but he lives! He will return with the NEW NAME of JUDGE and
LORD - Every knee shall bow, every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is
LORD. When he comes in HIS BODY, he will take up to him those who He
lives THROUGH at this present time. No one has ever found deceit in
the lives of Jesus or his Apostles. Jesus stands IN HISTORY as a
PERFECT human - the ONLY MAN IN HISTORY so RECORDED. He came the
first time EXACTLY when God WROTE that he would - He didn't have to
change God's word!
No, there is NO HARMONY between Baha'i and Christ or
Christianity. The blasphemy being exhorted by Baha'i World Faith and
its adherents will be dealt with at the BEMA JUDGEMENT SEAT. Until
that time, we followers of the LIVING CHRIST, must show our love for
the souls in Baha'i that have remained in the bondage that Christ
offered His life to end. Christ did die for them, and we must always
be ready to "give a reason for the hope that lies within us" to
"everyman who ask of you." May eyes be opened to the wisdom of the
Holy Spirit, and closed to the bind of Satan. Amen.
Computers for Christ - San Jose
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