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THE SPIRITUAL LIFE AND ETHICS


Written by: Unknown    Posted on: 05/06/2003

Category: Bible Studies

Source: CCN

    The following is a manuscript of a radio broadcast of Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, director of Ariel Ministries.  The text is copyrighted material being reproduced with the permission of the Board of Directors of Ariel Ministries.  This material may be distributed free of charge, but it is asked that the text not be modified in any way.  Your cooperation in this matter is much appreciated.

    Ariel Ministries is an independent faith mission dedicated to the work of evangelism and discipleship of Jewish people. Unlike many other missionary societies, we do not obligate our staff to raise their own support.  Our missionary staff is financed through contributions from believers throughout the country.  If this manuscript has blessed you in some way and/or has added to your knowledge of the word of God, then we encourage you to pray concerning contributing to Ariel Ministries in accordance with Galatians 6:6 and Romans 15:25-27.  All those contributing will be sent a tax-deductible receipt.  Send your gifts to Ariel Ministries, P.O. Box 3723, Tustin, CA  92681. 

All scripture quotes are from the 1901 American Standard Version.



                  THE SPIRITUAL LIFE AND ETHICS

          This is a study on the spiritual life and ethics. Ethical behavior is a major area in the spiritual life.  Many believers are not as ethical as they should be and many unbelievers are more ethical than believers.  This topic will be discussed in five major categories.

        I.  TOTAL DEPRAVITY AND THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF GOD

          The first category deals with total depravity and the righteousness of God.  Both aspects deal with the issue of ethics, or touch upon it.

                        A.  Total Depravity

          There are several erroneous concepts that people have about total depravity.  Total depravity is a theological term describing a truth taught in Scripture, but there are four erroneous concepts concerning total depravity.

          The first erroneous concept is that the natural man has no concept of right and wrong.  That is a mistake.  The natural man does have a concept of right and wrong as Paul makes clear in Romans 2:14-15, for he teaches that the works of the law are written in the hearts of even the pagan world.  The works of the law which are written in "their hearts" which includes their conscience.  When they do evil their conscience will either accuse or excuse their actions.  The natural, unregenerate man can have and does have concepts of right and wrong in their consciousness, in their conscience, and in their reasoning power.

          The second erroneous concept about total depravity is that all men are completely sinful.  This is not true either. This is not what total depravity means.  In fact, II Timothy 3:13 teaches that there is still something left in humanity that is still good.  The image of God is still in man and so there is still something in man that is good.

          The third erroneous concept is that man performs every type of sin.  This is cancelled out by Matthew 23:23; total depravity does not mean that every man does every type of sin.

          The fourth erroneous concept is that the unregenerate man has no good works.  Yet the Bible does teach that all men do have some good works.

          These are four false concepts about total depravity. So, what does it mean?  What is the correct doctrine of total depravity?  Three things should be noted.  First, it means that sin has touched every part of man; every part of man has been touched by sin (Rom. 1:31-32; 3:9-18).  Second, total depravity means that all men have a tendency to perform evil (Rom. 7:17; 7:20, 21, 23, 25).  The third thing that total depravity means is that no one has any good works in the sight of God.  Although man can do good works, those good works in no way commend him to God. That is what total depravity means.  It means that sin has touched every part of man, it means that all men have this tendency toward evil, and that no man's good works in any way commend him to God.  It is because of total depravity that believers and unbelievers both have a tendency toward unethical behavior and unethical behavior on the part of a believer will affect his spiritual life.

                  B.  The Righteousness of God

          The Bible speaks of two types of righteousness:  God's righteousness and man's righteousness (Rom. 10:1-4; Phil. 3:7-9). The Bible clearly draws a distinction between the two types of righteousness.

          First, man's righteousness does not satisfy God, but God's righteousness does satisfy God, does satisfy His demands (Isa. 64:4).

          Second, man's righteousness is practiced in the strength of his flesh, but God's righteousness is practiced on the basis of faith, by faith (Phil. 3:9).

          Third, in relationship of the righteousness of God to the unbeliever, there are two problems.  The first problem is the problem of sin.  Because he is totally depraved, sin has touched every part of him, he has a tendency toward evil and unethical behavior.  Even when he does behave ethically, his good works in no way commend him to God.  His second problem is that he does not have the righteousness of God.  The solution to the two problems of the unbeliever is found in II Corinthians 5:21.  To deal with the problem of sin, he needs salvation.  By that salvation he is forgiven of all of his sins.  Second, he needs to have the righteousness of God.  When he believes in the Lord Jesus Christ, the righteousness of God is imputed to him.  It is placed upon his account.

          Fourth, in relationship of the righteousness of God to the believer, two things should be noted:  position and practice. Insofar as position is concerned, the believer possesses the righteousness of God.  The moment he believed on Jesus as his Messiah, the moment he accepted Jesus as his Saviour, at that moment he received salvation and at that instantaneous moment the righteousness of God was imputed to him, He is now viewed as being righteous.  Positionally speaking, the believer possesses the righteousness of God.  As far as practice is concerned, the believer now has the option to work out God's righteousness or to work out man's righteousness (Matt. 6:1-18; I Cor. 3:1-23).  In the area of the spiritual life and ethics, if he works out man's righteousness, he will be guilty of unethical behavior.  This is why so many believers are unethical.  They have chosen to work out man's righteousness.  It might be "good business sense," but it may still be unethical.  However, if he chooses to work out God's righteousness and obey the word of God and the commandments of God, then he will be characterized by ethical behavior.

          To summarize total depravity and the righteousness of God, man is born totally depraved, and the solution is the imputed righteousness of God and that is the basis of ethical behavior.

                    II.  FREEDOM FROM THE LAW

          The second major area in the study of the spiritual life and ethics is the doctrine of the freedom from the law; what it does mean and what it does not mean.  This will be discussed in four parts.

                        A.  Romans 7:1-8:4

          This passage can be divided into four parts.

          1.  The Law and the Believer -- Romans 7:1-6

          The principle is found in verse 1.  He began with the word, "or," showing that what he was about to say was related to the previous section of Romans 6.  In the previous section he made the point that the believer is not under the Law, but he is under grace.  The Law ruled over living people only.  The Law had no authority over a dead man.  That is the principle.  From that principle, Paul gives the illustration (vv. 2-3).  The illustration is that a married woman is bound by the law of the husband as long as the husband is alive.  If she has relationships with another man while the husband is living, she is an adulteress.  However, once the husband is dead, she is free from the law of the husband, because death separates.  Now, if she chooses to marry another man, she is free to do so and is not guilty of adultery whatsoever.  The application of the illustration is in verses 4-6.  Through co-crucifixion, the believer has been made dead to the Law in order to be joined to Christ (v. 4).  For that reason, the law no longer has authority over him; he is dead to the Law.  The Law instigated the sin nature to commit acts of sin (v. 5).  However, the believer is now in a new life under grace (v. 6).  Being under grace means to be free from the Law.  The believer has been discharged from the Law.  He has died to that wherein he was held.  The "law" of this verse is the entire Mosaic Law, all 613 commandments.  The believer is free from all 613 commandments, including the famous ten.  The believer is free from every type of commandment.  That includes civil, moral, and ceremonial commandments.  He has been freed from the Law.  He now has a new life and now serves in newness of the spirit and not in oldness of the letter.

              2.  The Law and Sin -- Romans 7:7-12

          Paul started out with a problem that the previous section might raise.  Does what he said in verses 1-6 mean that the Law is sin?  This is a false conclusion derived from a correct premise.  The correct premise is that the Law instigated one to commit acts of sin.  But does that mean the Law is sin? The answer is no.  The Law reveals the fact of sin.  The fault does not lie in the Law, but in the sin nature.  The sin nature uses the Law as an occasion to cause one to sin even more.

          3.  Deliverance and the Law -- Romans 7:13-25

          Here Paul pointed out five things:  first, it is impossible to have spiritual victory under the Law.  Second, he looked at the believer as being under the Law apart from the work of Christ.  Third, there is a cycle of proof, contrast, proof, contrast.  What he was trying to show here was that if a believer tries to live the spiritual life on the basis of the Law, he will fail.  Just as with the unbeliever, the sin nature uses the Law as a basis to cause him to sin even more.  By the same token, the sin nature will use the Law again to cause the believer to commit sin even more.  The believer is dead to the Law.  He cannot be saved through it, but neither can he live the spiritual life through the Law.  Fourth, the question is, why is there no deliverance?  The reason there is no deliverance when the believer tires to live the spiritual life by means of the Law is that the believer's flesh is still under sin.  There is no good thing in the flesh of the believer.  There is the constant presence of the sin nature and, because of the presence of the sin nature, he will never achieve the spiritual life by means of the Law.  Fifth, his conclusion was that there is no deliverance or victory under the Law.  That means there is no justification through the Law, and it means there is no sanctification under the Law.

        4.  Deliverance and the Holy Spirit -- Romans 8:1-4

          Here Paul made five points.  First, he drew a summation when he said there is now no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus.  Even when believers sin, there is now no condemnation.  Second, he pointed out the principal:  the believer is now under the Law of the Spirit of Life in Christ and this has made him free from the Law of sin and of death.  Third, he pointed out again the inability of the Law:  it could not empower one to live the spiritual life.  The reason is that it was weak through the flesh; the flesh weakened the believer's ability to keep the Law.  Fourth, through the death of the Son, sin was condemned in the flesh.  Fifth, this in turn leads to the enablement of the Holy Spirit.  Negatively, sin condemns. Positively, the Holy Spirit enables.  Together, the righteous requirements of the Law are fulfilled.

          To summarize what Paul has been saying in this passage: first, there is no deliverance under the Law; second, deliverance is based upon the work of Christ; third, deliverance is accomplished by the Holy Spirit; and, fourth, one purpose of freedom from the Law is to bear fruit.

                        B.  Antinomianism

          "Anti" means "against" and "nomianism" is from the Greek word, nomos, which means "law."  Basically the word means, "against law."  Many believers throughout church history have misunderstood what is meant to be freed from the Law.  They have been guilty of the other extreme, which is antinomianism.  They have turned against all kinds of law.  They took the Biblical teaching of freedom from the Law of Moses to mean that the believer has no law to obey.  There are believers still teaching that today.  They get rather flippant and spiritual sounding by saying, "I just do whatever the Spirit tells me to do;" although often what they claim the Spirit told them to do violates the commandments the Spirit gave in the Scriptures.  Antinomianism then is the teaching that freedom from the Law means that the believer is not under any law whatsoever.  That is not biblically true.  Believers have been freed from the Law of Moses, but not to live any way they choose, but to walk by the Holy Spirit. Their walk by the Holy Spirit fulfills the Law.  It is true we are no longer under the Law of Moses, we are freed from all 613 commandments of the Law of Moses.  However, we are under another law today.  We are under the Law of Christ.  Just as the Law of Moses had many commandments, the Law of Christ also has many commandments.  There are many commandments for the believer in the Law of Christ, and, as believers, we are obligated to obey these commandments.  We have laws we have to obey, they just do not happen to be the commandments of the Law of Moses.

      C.  The Law of Moses and the New Testament Imperative

          Concerning the relationship of the Law of Moses and the New Testament imperative, there are four things by way of contrast.  First, the Law of Moses included penalties for disobedience, the Law of Christ does not; the Law of Christ only includes chastisement, which has a corrector force.  Second, the Law of Moses provided no enablement to keep the Law; the Law of Christ does by means of the Holy Spirit's ministry of indwelling by which He enables the believer to keep the demands of the Law of Christ.  Third, the Law of Moses resulted in man's righteousness, but the Law of Christ means that the believer lives out God's righteousness.  Fourth, the motivation for each is different:  the motivation under the Law of Moses was blessings for obedience and curses for disobedience, therefore, "obey in order that you may be blessed."  The Law of Christ, however, states "You have been blessed, therefore do."

                          D.  Legalism

          Because this is a major issue in the area of the spiritual life and ethics, this will be discussed in ten segments.

                        1.  Romans 14:1-13a

          The main point of this passage is freedom from the Law and freedom in Christ.  First (vv. 1-3), he discussed two brethren, one was strong and one was weak.  However, the two brothers were both obligated to refrain from judging each other. Second (vv. 4-9), Christ is the Lord of both.  Christ is the Lord of the weak believer and He is the Lord of the strong believer. Because Christ is the Lord of both, that is the reason for the previous command that neither one should judge the other.  Third (vv. 10-12), he pointed out that the right to judge belongs to Jesus.  He is the rightful judge and He alone is to judge the actions of a fellow believer.  These are actions which the Bible leaves in a neutral state, not actions that actually violate commandments of God.  If a believer lives immorally, he should be condemned by the local church.  But in dealing with amoral issues, in those areas which are neutral, biblically speaking, the right to judge belongs to Christ.  Fourth, the conclusion (v. 13a) is, "Therefore, let us not judge one another anymore." In the areas of amoral issues and in the area of neutral issues, this is the principle.

          From this first passage there are four observations. First, all have rules to live by.  Some of these rules are biblical rules, some are man-made rules, some are church rules, some are government rules, some are employer rules, and some of these rules we made ourselves.  Second, an honest conviction may lead a believer to conformity to a non-essential.  A believer may have a specific conviction about a specific amoral, neutral issue, and that will lead him to conform his action to that (Rom. 14:5).  That does not make him a legalist.  Every believer has the right to live by whatever extra-biblical laws he may choose.  However, the third observation is that one becomes a legalist when he begins imposing his own will and standards upon a fellow believer.  That is where he has gone too far.  While every believer has the right to live according to a set of rule that he has chosen to keep, once he starts judging the spirituality of fellow believers, or judging the ethics of fellow believers based upon their conformity to these extra rules, then he has become a legalist.  The fourth observation is that there are two attitudes to avoid in this relationship (Rom. 14:10). The first attitude to avoid at all costs is judging, especially in this context, the weaker brother judging the stronger brother. Usually, that is the case.  Usually, the one who does the judging is the weaker brother.  The weaker brother must not judge the strong brother.  The weaker brother must realize that the strong brother is free to partake of neutral issues.  The second attitude to avoid is becoming a despiser, a word that means, "to think little of."  This is often the attitude developed by a stronger believer toward the weaker believer.  A strong believer who knows that he is free to do something must not despise the weaker believer for his convictions.  He has a right to those convictions.

                      2.  Romans 14:13b-21

          The point of this passage is, "giving no offense." This passage has three parts.

          First (v. 13b), no man is to put a stumbling block before another.  There are three key terms that need to be clearly defined because they involve the spiritual life and ethics.  The first key term is "stumbling."  The meaning of "stumbling" is when a brother patterns his life after the liberty of another believer, but does not have the faith to accept the fact that God gives him liberty to do that which the brother is doing.  If the weaker brother does this, he will fall into sin (v. 23).  A weaker brother stumbles when he has problems with certain issues, but goes ahead and does them to imitate a stronger believer.  Because he is not able to partake of this in faith, he sins and, therefore, stumbles.  The responsibility in the realm of stumbling is this:  the strong believer is to so guard his conduct that a weaker brother does not follow his pattern of life so as to fall into sin because of a lack of faith on his part.

          The second key term is "offended."  To "offend" in this context means that a strong believer allows a weak brother to see him exercise the liberty that he has, which the weaker one does not have, and so the testimony of the stronger one is jeopardized before that brother.  In this case, the weaker brother does not stumble into sin but the testimony of the strong believer has been set aside as far as he is concerned.  He has been offended. As a result, the strong believer no longer has any spiritual input into his life.  The responsibility which comes out of the concept of being offended is that we must so conduct our manner of life that the weaker brother is not given cause to discount out Christian liberty.

          The third term is "made weak."  "Made weak" in this context means that a spiritually immature brother understands the teaching of liberty, but he sees a brother partake of that which he is free to, but the weaker brother is repelled from the truth, and is not willing to have anything to do with it.  He is driven to a weaker position still.

          The second part of the passage (v. 14) discusses the fact that things in themselves do not defile.  He is not dealing here with the differences between kosher and unkosher, clean and unclean.  The distinction is between the weak and the strong in a specific area.  Anyone who reckons something to be unclean, for him it is.  It may not be unclean for another, but it is unclean for him.  Third (vv. 15-21), the stronger believer is to limit the use of his liberty because the law of love always supercedes the law of liberty.  The stronger believer needs to follow two goals.  First, follow after peace; peace between fellow brethren, peace between believers who are strong and believers who are weak.  Second, seek to edify.  Seek to build up the weaker believer.

                      3.  Romans 14:22-15:3

          His point here is having a good conscience before God. This passage has three divisions.

          The first division (vv. 22-23), is to discuss the danger of liberty.  For the strong, the danger is the flaunting of his liberty.  He can practice liberty, but he should not flaunt it.  He may have to limit the occasion and place where he will use it.  The danger of liberty for the weaker believer is acting apart from faith.  If he chooses to imitate the stronger believer, but does not have the faith to do so, he sins.

          The second part of the passage (15:1-2) speaks of the sacrifice of liberty and points out two things.  First, the strong believer should bear the infirmities of the weak believer, which means giving up the use of his liberty in certain situations for the weaker brother's sake.  Second, aim to edify. This should always be his goal.  Aim to edify, to build up the weaker believer.  The sacrifice that the strong believer must make is always viewed as temporary until the weaker brother matures.  Once the weaker brother matures, the stronger believer no longer has to limit his liberty in a given area.

          The third part of the passage (v. 3) spells out the example to follow in all such things.  The example to follow Christ himself.  "For Christ also pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell upon me," and that should be the example to follow.

                        4.  Romans 15:17

          The emphasis here is to do all things to the glory of God.  Here he points out two things.  First, be like minded with fellow believers.  This does not mean to always agree on something being right or wrong, but to be like minded in the sense of being willing to give way for the sake of helping a weaker brother grow.  Second, to agree.  That which may be right for me may not be right for someone else.  God's will for his life is not any of my business.  I should reach an agreement with the weaker brother.  I will refrain at certain situations and I will understand that just because something is right for me does not mean it is right for him.  It could be wrong for him.  Where God may lead me to do certain actions of freedom, He may not lead another brother to do certain actions of freedom, and God's will for the other believer is not any of my business as far as my right to interfere is concerned.  It is my business as far as being concerned that he find God's will and carry it out, but it is not my business to interfere.

                    5.  I Corinthians 8:1-13

          This passage deals with the question:  How far can one go as a believer?  In discussing this subject, Paul gives three key principles.

          The first principle (vv. 1-6), is our freedom in Christ.  We are free in Christ.  We are free from the Law of Moses, we are free in Christ to do whatever the Bible allows us to do and does not forbid.  In all amoral and neutral issues, we are free to do.  According to verses 1-3, knowledge leads to freedom of action, but this freedom is to be tempered by the law of love. Yes, we are free to do whatever the Bible allows us to do, but our actions must be limited by the law of love.  In verses 4-6 he points out again that the believer is free in all areas of amoral issues, but it must be tempered, limited, by the law of love of the brethren.

          The second principle (vv. 7-12), is that liberty should not be used where a weaker brother either stumbles or is offended.  Remember, "could" does not mean "should".  Just because you could do something, does not mean you should do something.  Liberty should not be used where a weaker brother will either stumble or be offended.  Again, if he stumbles, he falls into sin, if he is offended he does not fall into sin; but he has removed you as having any influence in his life spiritually.

          The third principle (v. 13) is be willing to give up liberty for the sake of a weaker brother.  This does not mean you have to give up your liberty forever, but in the situations where you are in contact with the weaker believer, or as long as he remains a weaker believer in those situations, you will refrain from the exercise of your liberty.

          These are the three principles concerning how far one can go in I Corinthians 8.  In I Corinthians 9, Paul goes on to give the illustration of rights surrendered.  What you do or do not do in amoral issues does not really matter to God.  You must act according to your conscience.  However, God does not allow us to use our liberty to cause stumbling or offense on the part of a fellow believer. 

                        6.  John 17:1-10

          The main goal of the believer is to do all to the glory of God.  Under this point three things should be noted.

          First, the need of the unbeliever is to receive Christ as Saviour.  When one receives Jesus as Messiah and Saviour, he glorifies God through the salvation which he receives (Eph. 1:6, 12, 14).  Having received Christ, the second goal is to live a daily life in conformity to Christ.  This glorifies God through the new life which he now lives (I Cor. 10:31; II Cor. 3:18, I Thess. 2:12).  Third, Jesus is glorified by us being brought into glory or glorified; this is glory through all promises being fulfilled (Col. 3:4; Heb. 2:8-9).

          There is a past, present and future aspect by which we glorify God.  In the past, we glorify God by receiving Jesus as our Saviour, as our Messiah, and so this was glory through salvation received.  Now, in the present, we lead a daily life lived in conformity to Christ and this is glory through new life which is now received.  The future aspect is that someday Christ will even be further glorified by bringing us into glory, bring us into that same glorified state in which He now is.  This is the future glory, the glory through all the promises being fulfilled.  Past, present and future, we are fulfilling our goal and the goal of the believer is to do all to the glory of God. This, in turn, will be the rule of life for our ethical conduct today.  Everything we do we should give glory to God.  Unethical conduct blasphemes God.  Ethical conduct on the part of the believer glorifies God.

                    7.  Dangers To Be Avoided

          In the area of legalism three dangers must be avoided. First, is legalism itself.  Again, legalism is not when a believer chooses to live by a set of rules and regulations which are outside of Scripture, but when a believer makes a list of doubtful things, or amoral things, and then uses this list to judge another believer's spirituality.  Ultimately, legalism makes salvation or spirituality a matter of works.  Every believer must avoid the problem of legalism.  We must avoid using non-Biblical rules and regulations to judge a fellow believer's conduct and, therefore, a fellow believer's spirituality. 

          The second danger to avoid is loss of our testimony. Unethical behavior will ruin our testimony before other believers and before the world.  We must be very careful not to lose our testimony and the best way of maintaining our testimony is to live ethically.  Be guilty of ethical behavior, not unethical behavior.  Of course, this involves the stronger believer being willing to refrain to avoid causing someone to stumble.

          The third danger to avoid is causing a brother to sin. We can cause a brother to sin by encouraging him to do unethical things or by pressuring him to do something which he is free to do, but does not have the faith to do. 

                  8.  The Problems of Legalism

          Here let me list five problems.

          First, in legalism there is a lack of logic.  For example, take the issue of movies.  Some believers teach that it is wrong for believers to go to movies.  However, they do not see anything wrong with seeing the same movies on television.  Where is the logic in all this?  There obviously could not be anything wrong with seeing the movie, per se, since it is okay to see the same movie on television.  Are they wrong because of what they are or are they wrong because of where they are seen?  There is a lack of logic there.  Another example of this lack of logic is in the issue of whether Christians can use cards or dice.  In one of the schools that I went to, they clearly taught that it is wrong for believers to use cards or dice.  Why is it wrong?  Because gamblers use them!  However, gamblers use many other things and bank robbers and murders use get away cars.  Is it, therefore, wrong for believers to drive a car?  There is a lack of logic because they do not clearly show whether the sin lies in themselves or in the way they are used.  A car, of course, could be used correctly.  It could also be used for sinful purposes. The same could easily be true of cards and dice.  The major problem of legalism is that there is a lack of logic as to why something is wrong in one situation and right in another situation.  Why is it okay to see a movie on television, but wrong to see it in a theater?  If it is wrong to go to a theater because of what some people do in the back rows, the same thing could be said about public parks since the same thing goes on in a public park, must Christians avoid public parks?  It is a lack of logic.

          The second problem of legalism is confusion as to where the sin really lies.  As in the examples above, there is tremendous confusion in whether the sin lies in the thing itself or in the way it is used.

          A third problem of legalism is faulty exegesis.  For example, in some circles they teach that drinking wine under any circumstances is wrong.  When you approach the Scriptures and see Jesus drinking wine, they say that the word there means grape juice.  However, it is the same word that is used elsewhere for wine that people get drunk on.  It is exegetically faulty to say that wine in one context means an alcoholic beverage, but in another context it means grape juice.  A word has a specific meaning.  If it means one thing in one place, it means the same thing in another place and we cannot use our own preconceived prejudices to interpret Scripture. 

          A fourth problem of legalism is that it is often anti- Scriptural.  For example, in Psalm 104:15 we are encouraged to "bless the Lord for making wine the fruit of the vine that maketh glad the heart of man."  Try as you may, grape juice simple will not have that affect.  Psalm 104:15 clearly talks about wine that is an alcoholic beverage which maketh glad the heart of man. That is one of the things we are supposed to be praising God for. Yet you will not find God being praised for this in many circles. So often legalism turns out to be anti-Scriptural, as well as faulty exegesis. 

          The fifth problem of legalism is that the believer fails to live by the work of the Holy Spirit.  It is a lot easier for a believer to live by a set of rules rather than to be sensitive to the leading of the Holy Spirit.  Of course, we have rules to follow, but these are the rules of Scripture.  No organization or church has the right to add any extra rules or regulations and enforce them and make them a mark of spirituality and a mark of ethical behavior.  While it is easier to live by a set of rules, the Bible encourages us to be sensitive to the leading of the Holy Spirit in these amoral and neutral issues, and not to set a once-and-for-all rule that the Bible does not support.

    9.  Biblical Passages Related to the Problem of Legalism

          The first Biblical passage is Romans 14:1-8.  This passage makes four points.  First, the stronger believer is the one who does not have problems with amoral or neutral issues. Those who have problems, those who feel they have to refrain, are not the more spiritual ones, they are the immature ones.  Second, the attitudes towards each other is to be that of mutual respect. Third, each believer may be persuaded in his own mind concerning amoral or neutral issues and live accordingly without expecting others to live by them.  Fourth, principles underlying the doing or the not doing of amoral or neutral things is one's attitude towards God in that we are to be able to give thanksgiving to God in what we participate and in what we do not participate. 

          The second passage is Romans 14:14-23.  This passage makes five points.  First, nothing is unclean in itself.  Amoral things, such as eating of meat or drinking, these things are not unclean in themselves.  However, second, if a believer considers some things to be sinful or unclean, it is sinful and unclean to him, but that does not make it sinful or unclean to another believer.  Third, the person who is free to participate in amoral things is to limit his practice by the law of love of the brethren.  The question you should ask here is; how would his doing a given thing in a given situation affect a fellow believer?  Different restrains will be required at different times and no set rule will fit every situation.  This is the true biblical situation ethics:  not total abstention, but rather sensitivity to the situation and how it will affect a fellow believer.  Fourth, this passage is not concerned how the unbeliever may react, but how the believer reacts.  The fifth point is the principal of faith.  The one who is free is happy if he does not judge or condemn himself in doing the things he is free to do.  But one with convictions is sinning if he participates. 

          The third passage I Corinthians 8:4-13.  This passage makes two major points.  First, nothing is sinful in itself.  In the area of amoral or neutral issues, nothing is sinful in itself.  For example, meat that is offered to idols is still good meat.  The strong believer knows that the character of the meat has not changed, though it has been offered to an idol, and so he is free to participate.  However, the weak believer associates this kind of meat with his past life of idolatry and, therefore, has conscience problems and he will sin if he eats.  Nothing is sinful in itself.  Meat is okay to eat, but if you have a problem with meat you should abstain.  Today, people do not argue about meat that much anymore, but they do about wine.  The strong believer knows he is free to participate in drinking of wine in a moderate way.  However, the weak believer associates wine with his former life of drunkenness and so he has conscience problems if he has a glass of wine and, therefore, he should refrain. Again, the point in these amoral, neutral issues, is that nothing is unclean of itself but, if someone feels he is wrong in doing something, then he should abstain from it.  The second point of this passage is that the free one is to be guided by how his action will affect a fellow believer.  What he may be able to do one day he will have to refrain from doing on another day.  The action must be based on a given situation.  There are no hard or fast rules that will cover every circumstance. 

          The fourth passage on the problem of legalism is I Corinthians 10:23-11:1.  This passage makes four points. First, again, nothing is sinful in itself.  That is, insofar as amoral, neutral issues are concerned, nothing is sinful in itself.  What is right or wrong about something is the way it is used.  Neutral things can be used properly, or improperly.  It can be committed without sinning or it can be committed with sinning.  Second, the guiding principle is:  how is it going to affect another person.  In this passage, unbelievers are included.  Third, what is usually alright may be wrong in given situation.  The abstaining is not for the sake of the conscience of the person who is free, but for the sake of the other person's conscience.  If the other conscience is affected one must refrain.  Fourth, what is done in freedom or in restriction should be done in thanksgiving and for the glory of God. 

          The fifth passage relating to the problem of legalism is Colossians 2:16-33.  Here, Paul makes five points.  First, the practice of liberty is the superior way of life.  The need for living by a set of rules is nowhere condemned, but it is not the biblical ideal.  It is not what the Bible strives for in the spirituality and development of the saint.  Second, since all amoral or neutral issues are clean, the person who has liberty is never to allow himself to be judged, but to continue in the superior lifestyle.  Third, living by a set of rules is a sign of spiritual immaturity.  This is opposite of what is often portrayed today.  The picture often given is that the one who refrains from all these things is the spiritual one.  Living by a set of rules, however, is a sign of spiritual immaturity. Fourth, to submit to rules is to subject oneself to human precepts.  If you are obeying rules that go beyond Scripture, then you are submitting yourself to human precepts.  Fifth, rules like these seem to show wisdom and seem to show self-abasement but, in realty, they are no help against the lust of the flesh. The sin nature will simply use it to get you to violate your own standards.

          These are the five passages relating to the problem of legalism.  By way of summary seven things should be pointed out. First, all amoral or neutral things in themselves are clean and not sinful.  There is nothing inherent in them that would make them wrong to use or wrong to participate in.  Second, the stronger and more mature believer is the one who is free to do all those things and feels no pangs of conscience.  Third, the weaker believer is the one who has problems with amoral issues and so refrains.  Fourth, the weaker believer is  not to condemn the stronger believer for participating and the stronger believer is not to look down upon the weaker believer for not being able to participate.  Fifth, the whole life of liberty is encouraged as superior; living by a set of rules is, in itself, not condemned, it is not wrong, but the Bible discourages it.  Sixth, the situation ethic for the stronger believer is based on the principle of how an action in a given situation will affect primarily the believer and only secondarily, how it will affect the unbeliever.  Seventh, there can be no set rule or principle which will work in every situation other than the principle of love of the brethren.  The action must depend upon the situation.

                          10.  Conclusion

          By way of conclusion three points may be made.  First, we are to obey the Law of Christ.  Just as the Law of Moses had many commandments, the Law of Christ also has many commandments. We do not have options here.  That which God has commanded for the New Testament believer, that he must obey.  The second thing by way of conclusion, however, is that there is freedom in amoral or neutral issues.  We are free to partake and to do those things which are neutral and amoral.  However, since not all men have this knowledge, those who have problems with any neutral or amoral issue are to refrain.  Legalism is not conducting one's life by a set of rules.  Legalism is expecting others to live by them and so his conscience becomes the judge of another's liberty.  That is how a weak brother becomes a legalist.  On the other hand, if a person who is free demands others to live accordingly, he too becomes a legalist.  Legalism can go both ways.  The weaker brother can become a legalist if he expects the strong brother to live by his rules, and the strong brother becomes a legalist if he tries to enforce the weaker brother to exercise his freedom. 

          Third, the biblical pattern is not total abstention or total indulgence, but moderation tempered by sensitivity to the needs of fellow believers and the leading of the Holy Spirit.

                  III.  THE NEW TESTAMENT ETHIC

                      A.  The Ethic Itself

          The New Testament ethic is the ethic of love.  The declaration of the ethic is, "This way shall men know you are my disciples, you have love for one another."  That is the New Testament ethic, love.  But what is meant by love?

                  B.  Four Greek Words for Love

          There are four different Greek words for love. 

          The first Greek word is eros.  The English word, erotic, comes from it.  It refers to sexual love.  By itself it is not a wrong term.  It can become wrong in certain situations. In all immoral situations it is wrong.  However, this word is never found in the New Testament.  It is the Greek equivalent of a Hebrew word that is used in the Old Testament.  The second Greek word is stargei, which is love in the sense of natural affection.  A good example of stargei love is a mother's love for her child.  The third Greek word for love is phileo, which is an emotional love.  It is a love of the emotions in response to an attraction.  It is the kind of love that may initially attract a male and a female, although it is not the kind of love one should get married on. It is also a love of deep friendship.  People who are best friends are exercising phileo love.  There is something about the spirits of two human beings that draw them together, and this is a phileo love.

          None of these first three types of love is the true love of the New Testament ethic.  The fourth word is agapei. This is a love that can be willed.  It is a love of the will.  It is the love you choose.  It is the kind of love that you can make a commitment to.  This is the kind of love you should get married on the basis of.  It is a love that looks out for the well being of others.  This is the love of the New Testament ethic.

                    C.  The Directions of Love

          When the Bible uses agapei love, it points out eight directions in which this agapei love should be extended. 

          First and foremost, of course, is God and Christ.  We are told that we are to love God with the wholeness of our being. It is agapei love that we should have for Him.  We should choose to love God and put Him first in our lives and putting everything else behind. 

          The second is towards the spouse.  Again, this is the kind of love that you should get married on.  While you may be attracted by phileo love, eventually that will wain.  This is the kind of love that is the basis of a good and solid marriage.  It is a love that you can will, no matter how much your spouse mistreats you.  You may not be able to exercise the other three types of love toward your spouse, but you can this one because it is a love of the will.  This is the kind of love we should commit ourselves to because that is the guarantee of a strong, long-term marriage. 

          Third, this is the love to be extended toward the brethren.  When we are told that we are to love the brethren, this is the kind of love we should exercise.  It is impossible to exercise phileo love towards all brethren.  There are some people that repel us.  There are some believers that we will never be attracted to.  There are some believers that simply turn us off. We cannot love every believer in the phileo way.  But we can love every believer in the agapei way, and we should.  We must will to love the brethren by means of agapei love.  We need to look out for his well being, no matter how much he or she may turn us off.

          Fourth, this is the love that we are to have for those in authority, especially in the spiritual realm.

          Fifth, this is the kind of love we should exercise towards the church.  The church is an organism and this is the kind of love we need to extend towards this church.  We need to learn to love the Church.  Christ loved the church and gave Himself up for it.  It does not mean we need to love every individual church and, of course, apostate individual local churches are not to be loved.  However, we are to exercise agapei love toward a Bible based church.  If we do so, we look out for its well being and we seek to use our spiritual gifts in the context of the meeting of that church.

          Sixth, agapei love should be extended toward the sheep as individuals.  This is the love that the elders of the church should have toward their sheep.  The shepherd must learn to love all of his sheep.  Again, he cannot love all of his congregants in the phileo sense, but he can will to love everyone of them in the agapei sense.  While on one hand one must love the church as an organism, he must also love the sheep as individuals.

          Seventh, this love is to be exercised toward our neighbor.  Jesus said that the second most important commandment is to love your neighbor as yourself.  The kind of love that we are to apply towards the neighbor is agapei love.  As far as defining who your neighbor is, Jesus did not define your neighbor as someone who is in your neighborhood or someone who lives next door to you.  Your neighbor is anyone who has a need that you can meet.  If you see someone in need and you can meet that need, you are exercising agapei love. 

          Eighth, this is the way we must love our enemies.  When Jesus said to love your enemies, he said to agapei them.  This means that we put our personal animosity aside and we learn to love our enemies.  As long as we are holding a grudge, we are not exercising agapei love towards the enemy.  If we can truly look at our enemy and say, "I have no personal animosity towards him, I have nothing to say against him," we are exercising agapei love.  Find a way to bless your enemy and you are exercising agapei love.

                      D.  The Degree of Love

          The New Testament ethic is superhuman.  While unbelievers are capable of exercising agapei love to a degree, there will always be a limit. 

                  E.  The Role of the Holy Spirit

          The ability to exercise this agapei love is by the power of the Holy Spirit.  There is the duplication of the New Testament ethic of love by the power of the Holy Spirit. 

                      IV.  DOUBTFUL THINGS

          The fourth major area in the spiritual life and ethics has to do with doubtful things.  How is the believer to deal with things where there is some doubt whether they are permitted or forbidden by Scripture?  This will be discussed in four areas.

                          A.  Pleasure

          Is pleasure right or wrong?  Is it okay for believers to have pleasure or is it wrong for believers to participate in pleasure?  Is pleasure sinful?  Throughout church history, some circles taught that believers should not have pleasure and that pleasure is sinful.  They pointed to specific passages which gave a negative connotation of pleasure such as Proverbs 21:17, Luke 8:14, II Timothy 3:4 and Titus 3:3.  There is no question that these passages clearly mention pleasure in a context of sin and mention it in a context where believers are told to refrain from being participants.  On the other hand, there are other passages of Scripture that encourage pleasure for believers. Although often ignored, there are a number of passages that talk about pleasure in a good sense, in a sense which believers should expect to enjoy.  Some examples are I Kings 4:20, Psalms 16:11, 147:11, John 10:11, 15:11, Romans 15:13 and Philippians 2:13. These are passages that clearly give a positive side to pleasure.

          Can believers have pleasure or is it wrong for believers to have pleasure?  How do we reconcile the verses that speak of it in terms of sin with passages that speak of it in terms of blessing and something believers can expect? 

                      B.  Nothing is Unclean

          As was discussed earlier in this manuscript under the subject of legalism, nothing is unclean in itself.  For example, in Romans 14:14 Paul wrote, "I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean of itself save that to him who account anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean."  Another passage along this line is I Timothy 4:4, "for every creature of God is good and nothing is to be rejected if it be received with thanksgiving."  Another passages is Titus 1:15, "to the pure all things are pure, but to them that are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure but both their mind and their conscience are defiled."  According to these three passages, nothing is unclean. However, something could become unclean if it is used wrongly. That is the way to reconcile the passages for and against pleasure.  There are pleasures which are sinful, there are pleasures which are not sinful.  Even pleasures which are in themselves not sinful can still be used in a sinful way.  While in itself nothing is unclean, it could become evil in certain situations. 

                  C.  The Problem of the World

          However, there is still a problem.  The problem is that there are admonitions against enjoying the world (I Tim. 4:4). First John 2:15 states, "Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world.  If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him."  This is a clear admonition against enjoying the world.  How does that reconcile with the teaching that there are situations where pleasures of the world are allowed for the believer?  If nothing is unclean in itself, why then these admonitions against enjoying the world?  The answer is simple.  These admonitions in I John 2:15, for example, refers to the misuse of pleasure and the use of the external world. Pleasure can be used correctly, but it can be used incorrectly. The key to proper pleasure is to see all things as a gift from God and not to be misused.  Matthew 6:33 points out that priority must be given in seeking the kingdom of God.  Luke 12:15 points out that we are to avoid all covetousness.  First Timothy 6:17 states that the wealthy are not to trust in their riches because all these things can come to naught.  The key, then, is to see all things as a gift from God and not to be misused. 

                      D.  Questions to Ask

          When we are confronted with a doubtful thing, how should we respond?  Let me suggest six questions to ask. 

          The first question is:  is it a weight or a hindrance? Hebrews 12:1.  Is it something that will weigh us down from growing in the spiritual life?  Is it something that will hinder us from running the race of the spiritual life?  If the answer is yes, refrain.  If no, you are free to participate.

          The second question is based upon I Corinthians 6:12: will it obtain control over my will?  Is it something that is habit forming?  Is it something that once I get into I will have a hard time stopping?  If it begins exercising control over your will, it means the Lord no longer controls your will and, therefore, it should be abstained from. 

          The third question is based upon Romans 14:23:  is there a question about it in my mind?  Do I feel totally comfortable about participating in such?  If the answer is yes, you are free.  If the answer is no, refrain. 

          The fourth question is based upon I Corinthians 8:13: will it cause a brother to stumble?  We have seen that the Bible clearly forbids believers to cause weaker brethren to stumble. Will it cause a brother to stumble?  If the answer is no, you are free.  If the answer is yes, refrain.

          The fifth question is based upon Colossians 4:5:  will it win or lose a person to the Lord?  Again, if the answer is yes or no you are to act accordingly. 

          The sixth question is based upon I Corinthians 10:31: will it glorify God?  If the answer is no, refrain.  If the answer is yes, you are free to participate. 

                            V.  DEBT

          There are believers who teach that it is always wrong to owe money to anybody and, therefore, a believer must never use credit cards, always pay in cash, always get rentals, never buy something unless you can pay for it totally.  They will not buy anything on time plan, nor mortgage a house.  This will be discussed in three parts.

                        A.  The Key Passage

          The key passage.  The key passage often used against any form of owing is Romans 13:8:  "Owe no man anything . . ." In the Greek text, this passage has a double negative, emphasizing that it is emphatic:  owe no man anything in any way. That verse does teach, basically, against debt. 

                      B.  Definition of Debt

          What is a debt?  Debt exists where liability (what is owed), exceeds assets (funds used to pay what is owed).  If the annual budget shows a deficit, it means that the family is in debt.  If in some months the bills exceed the income because of taxes or insurance, then income in other months must exceed the bills in order to balance the budget.  This type of temporary indebtedness does not violate the biblical principle.  The debt remains until the account is settled, but this is not sinful in and of itself.  Insofar as a mortgage is concerned, you are not really in debt until the next payment becomes due.  Debts only become sinful when they exceed your ability to pay them.  That is what is meant by debt. 

                      C.  Biblical Principles

          In light of what the Bible demands about indebtedness, in light of the definition of what indebtedness is, what are the biblical principles in dealing with debts?  There are three biblical principles. 

          First, you must see debt for what it is and debt is slavery.  If you are indebted, meaning you no longer have the ability to pay what you owe, you are a slave (Lev. 25:39-41; Prov. 22:7; Matt. 18:25-30). 

          The second principle is the fact that covetousness often will lead you to unnecessary debts.  Covetousness is what causes most people to fall into indebtedness where they reach beyond their limits of being able to pay back and, therefore, must file bankruptcy.  According to Colossians 3:5, covetousness is idolatry.  Even believers must learn how to draw a distinction between necessity and want.  It is amazing how many people confuse that which they want with that which they need.  In American materialism, it is very easy to confuse the two.  Wants are all right if they are affordable.  However, do not confuse priorities.  It is all right to buy something if it is affordable, but even if it is affordable, do not confuse your priorities.  Now, how can you know whether you can afford it or not?  You can know in four ways.  First, for economic reasons: if you do not have the money for it, you cannot afford it.  A second way of knowing is for priority reasons:  the money is there, but it is not a priority and you may need this money for something of greater and more important priority.  A third way to know is for stewardship reasons:  is something being thrown out for replacement because it is worn out or because it is out of style?  The fourth way to know is for spiritual reasons:  will it keep me from spending time in the church or coming together with fellow believers?  Will it cause me to cut back on my giving?  If meeting your wants causes you to cut back on your giving to the work of the Lord, you do not need it and you cannot afford it. Covetousness is idolatry and covetousness leads to unnecessary debts.

          The third biblical principle is to plan wisely.  In planning wisely let me mention two things. 

          First, the balance.  The balance is: trust God and plan wisely.  We should trust God to meet our needs, but we are responsible to plan wisely.  We should plan wisely for our children (I Cor. 12:14), for our household (I Tim. 4:8) and for our business (James 4:13-15). 

          Second, there are four guidelines for your budget. First, plan for the whole year.  Figure out what your monthly deficits are and what your yearly payments need to be. Distinguish between monthly payments, such as rent or mortgage or car payments, as against yearly payments, such as insurance, and work these things out.  Make your plans out for the whole year. 

          The second guideline is, postpone a minor purchase when possible in order to pay it off in full to avoid interest charges.  There is nothing wrong with paying interest charges, but they do take more money away from you.  Instead of a monthly charge with interest, put that money into savings where you are collecting interest.  You may have to put off buying certain things, but that is fine.  You will get them eventually anyway and be debt free.

          The third guideline concerns major purchases.  If at all possible, try to pay in full.  If you can pay for a house in full, do it.  If you can pay for a car in full, do it.  Most of us, cannot do that.  We do not get paid that well.  Try to give a large down payment.  A large down payment will keep the interest down and that will allow your monthly payments to be within the realm of possibility in accordance with your budget.  As far as your mortgage is concerned, if at all possible try to keep it within one-third of your total take home-pay.  Keep careful track of your discretionary income, the income that is left after all the monthly commitments are paid, including housing, clothing and food because these funds may be needed later on. 

          The fourth guideline is that if you are in debt, over your head, try to get out to the point that all monthly payments are manageable.  That means quit using your credit cards and pay cash.  If need be, take out a loan to consolidate all your debts so that you are making fewer and more affordable monthly payments.

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Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

keyword (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT	keyword, word_id 	
		
FROM keyword_list
WHERE word_id =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 62639

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 246

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 8

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 247

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 8

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 250

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 8

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 251

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 8

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 252

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 8

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 253

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 8

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 254

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 8

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 346

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 5

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 352

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 5

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 403

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 5

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 408

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 5

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 440

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 5

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 442

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 5

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 494

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 7

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 522

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 7

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 748

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 1

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 761

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 1

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=2ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 792

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 1

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 811

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=0ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 7

getmatch (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT docID, docName, docCategory, docDescription
FROM Documents
WHERE docID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 813

catQ (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
SELECT categoryName FROM Categories WHERE categoryID =  ? 
Query Parameter Value(s) -
Parameter #1(cf_sql_integer) = 5

views (Datasource=believersweb, Time=1ms, Records=1) in C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm @ 16:45:31.031
	SELECT docviews, pageviews, rc_views, visnum
 	FROM  stats
 	WHERE recid = 1


Scope Variables

Application Variables:
applicationname=Believersweb
portcullis=Struct (21)
CGI Variables:
AUTH_PASSWORD=
AUTH_TYPE=
AUTH_USER=
CERT_COOKIE=
CERT_FLAGS=
CERT_ISSUER=
CERT_KEYSIZE=256
CERT_SECRETKEYSIZE=2048
CERT_SERIALNUMBER=
CERT_SERVER_ISSUER=C=GB, S=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA
CERT_SERVER_SUBJECT=OU=Domain Control Validated, OU=PositiveSSL, CN=believersweb.org
CERT_SUBJECT=
CF_TEMPLATE_PATH=C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm
CONTENT_LENGTH=0
CONTENT_TYPE=
CONTEXT_PATH=
GATEWAY_INTERFACE=CGI/1.1
HTTPS=on
HTTPS_KEYSIZE=256
HTTPS_SECRETKEYSIZE=2048
HTTPS_SERVER_ISSUER=C=GB, S=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO RSA Domain Validation Secure Server CA
HTTPS_SERVER_SUBJECT=OU=Domain Control Validated, OU=PositiveSSL, CN=believersweb.org
HTTP_ACCEPT=text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING=br,gzip
HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE=en-US,en;q=0.5
HTTP_CONNECTION=Keep-Alive
HTTP_COOKIE=
HTTP_HOST=believersweb.org
HTTP_REFERER=
HTTP_URL=/view.cfm?id=796&rc=1&list=multi
HTTP_USER_AGENT=CCBot/2.0 (https://commoncrawl.org/faq/)
LOCAL_ADDR=192.168.10.5
PATH_INFO=
PATH_TRANSLATED=C:\inetpub\wwwroot\believersweb\view.cfm
QUERY_STRING=id=796&rc=1&list=multi
REMOTE_ADDR=192.168.10.1
REMOTE_HOST=192.168.10.1
REMOTE_USER=
REQUEST_METHOD=GET
SCRIPT_NAME=/view.cfm
SERVER_NAME=believersweb.org
SERVER_PORT=443
SERVER_PORT_SECURE=1
SERVER_PROTOCOL=HTTP/1.1
SERVER_SOFTWARE=Microsoft-IIS/8.0
WEB_SERVER_API=
Cookie Variables:
CFID=3111257
CFTOKEN=90a873cd82429ae8-F9914815-C294-74F4-36036FD247AF1FF4
Server Variables:
coldfusion=Struct (10)
os=Struct (5)
Session Variables:
cfid=3111257
cftoken=90a873cd82429ae8-F9914815-C294-74F4-36036FD247AF1FF4
contentwidth=825
sessionid=BELIEVERSWEB_3111257_90a873cd82429ae8-F9914815-C294-74F4-36036FD247AF1FF4
sessiontimer={ts '2020-03-31 16:45:31'}
urltoken=CFID=3111257&CFTOKEN=90a873cd82429ae8-F9914815-C294-74F4-36036FD247AF1FF4
visitor=1
URL Parameters:
id=796
list=multi
rc=1
Debug Rendering Time: 6 ms