The Trinity, the Definition of Chalcedon, and...
Written by: Unknown Posted on: 05/12/2003
Category: Bible Studies
APO:The Trinity, the Definition of Chalcedon, and Oneness Theology
The doctrine of the Trinity requires a balanced view of Scripture.
That is, since the doctrine itself is derived from more than one stream
of evidence, it requires that all the evidence be weighed and given
authority. If any of the foundational pillars of the doctrine
(monotheism, the deity of Christ, the person of the Holy Spirit, etc.)
be ignored or even rejected, the resulting doctrinal system will differ
markedly from the orthodox position, and will lose its claim to be
For centuries various small groups have rejected the doctrine of the
Trinity. In modern times these groups have frequently attracted quite a
following; Jehovah's Witnesses as the modern heirs of Arius have over 3
million people actively engaged in their work; the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons) are heirs of ancient
polytheism and mystery religions, and nearly 6.5 million adhere to
their teachings. A smaller number of people, however, cling to the
third-century position of modalism - the teachings of men such as
Sabellius or Praxeas or Noetus. Though fewer in number, it is this
position, popularly called the "Oneness" teaching, that prompts this
paper's clarification of the Biblical position regarding the doctrine
of the Trinity and the Person of Jesus Christ.
Oneness writers strongly deny the doctrine of the Trinity. In the
words of David K. Bernard,
"The Bible does not teach the doctrine of the trinity, and
trinitarianism actually contradicts the Bible. It does not add any
positive benefit to the Christian message....the doctrine of the
trinity does detract from the important biblical themes of the oneness
of God and the absolute deity of Jesus Christ."
The attack on the Trinity launched by Oneness writers can be divided
into two camps. There are some writers who know what the doctrine is
and disagree with it; unfortunately, many others don't know what it is
and attack it anyway, normally misrepresenting the doctrine in quite
obvious ways. For example, one writer, while ridiculing the use of the
term "mystery" in reference to the Trinity said, "When asked to explain
how God could be one and three persons at the same time the answer is,
"It's a mystery." " Of course, the doctrine of the Trinity does not
say God is one person and three persons or one being and three beings,
but that within the one being of God there exists eternally three
persons. It is easy to see why many find the doctrine unintelligible,
especially when they trust writers who are not careful in their
This Oneness teaching is quite attractive to the person who wishes,
for whatever personal reason, to "purge" the faith of what they might
consider to be "man's philosophies." There are a number of Oneness
groups in the United States, located primarily in the South and
Midwest. The United Pentecostal Church is the largest of the Oneness
groups in the U.S.; others include the Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church
of God, the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, and the Church of our
Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith. Each of these groups has
thousands of followers, many of whom are quite evangelistic in
spreading their faith. Given that many of the issues that Oneness
addresses are not familiar ground for most Christians, it is good to
examine these issues in the light of Biblical revelation and theology
so that the orthodox Christian will be able to "give a reason" for the
hope that is within us.
This survey will be broken into four sections. First, the important
aspects of the doctrine of the Trinity relevant to the Oneness position
will be examined. These would include the Christian definition of
monotheism, the existence of three persons, the pre-existence of the
Son and the internal operations of the Trinity. Secondly, vital issues
relevant to Christology will be addressed, such as the Chalcedonian
definition, the unipersonality of Christ, and the relationship of the
Father and the Son. Thirdly, the Oneness position will be defined and
presented, and finally that position will be critiqued.
II. Trinitarian Concepts
The very word "Trinity" is made up of two terms - "tri" and "unity."
The doctrine travels the middle road between the two, and neither can
be allowed to predominate the other. Trinitarians have but one God -
the charge of polytheism or tritheism leveled at the orthodox position
ignores the very real emphasis, drawn from the Biblical witness to one
God, on monotheism. This can be seen, for example, in the definition of
the Trinity given by Berkhof:
A) There is in the Divine Being but one indivisible essence (ousia,
B) In this one Divine Being there are three Persons or individual
subsistences, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
C) The whole undivided essence of God belongs equally to each of the
D) The subsistence and operation of the three persons in the divine
Being is marked by a certain definite order.
E) There are certain personal attributes by which the three persons
F) The Church confesses the Trinity to be a mystery beyond the
comprehension of man.
Twice the emphasis is made that the essence or being of God is
indivisible. There is but one being that is God. The doctrine of the
Trinity safeguards this further by asserting that "the whole undivided
essence of God belongs equally to each of the three persons." This
follows logically on the heels of asserting the indivisibility of the
being of God, for if three Persons share that one being, they must
share all of that being. The Father is not just 1/3 of God - he is
fully Deity, just as the Son and the Spirit.
The Biblical evidence for monotheism is legion, and it is not within
the scope of this paper to review all those passages. The Shema might
be sufficient to demonstrate the point, for this recital begins at
Deuteronomy 6:4 with the words, "Hear, O Israel; Yahweh is our God;
Yahweh is one." This concept of monotheism separates Judaism (and
Christianity) from any kind of polytheistic religion.
Given monotheism as a basis, it must be stressed that the bald
statement of monotheism does not imply nor denote unitarianism. When
the Bible says God is one, this does not mean that God is unitarian
(i.e., uni-personal) in his mode of existence. Frequently individual
writers will quote from the many passages that teach that there is one
God and will infer from this a denial of the tri-personality of God.
This is going beyond what is written. It is vital, if justice is to be
done to the Biblical teaching, that all of the witness of Scripture be
given due consideration. If the Bible presents more data that clarifies
the meaning of God's "oneness," then this information must be taken
Does, then, the Bible indicate the existence of more than one Person
in the divine nature? It most certainly does. John Calvin expressed the
proper balance well in the Institutes:
"Again, Scripture sets forth a distinction of the Father from the
Word, and of the Word from the Spirit. Yet the greatness of the mystery
warns us how much reverence and sobriety we ought to use in
investigating this. And that passage in Gregory of Nazianus vastly
" "I cannot think on the one without quickly being encircled by the
splendor of the three; nor can I discern the three without being
straightway carried back to the one." Let us not, then, be led to
imagine a trinity of persons that keeps our thoughts distracted and
does not at once lead them back to that unity. Indeed, the words
"Father," "Son," and "Spirit" imply a real distinction - let no one
think that these titles, whereby God is variously designated from his
works, are empty - but a distinction, not a division."
Before looking at the particular Biblical data, it is good to make
the same emphasis as made by Gregory via Calvin - though this paper
will emphasize the triunity of God, this is only because of the object
of clarification, that being the Oneness teaching. Balance demands that
both elements - the existence of three persons as well as the absolute
claim of monotheism - be maintained.
The Christian church maintains that the terms Father, Son and Holy
Spirit refer to actual Persons, not simply modes of existence. As the
popular, short definition goes, "There is within the one being that is
God three co-equal and co-eternal Persons, the Father, the Son, and the
Holy Spirit." The Father is not the Son, the Son is not the Spirit, the
Spirit is not the Father, etc. Each is eternal - the Father has always
been, the Son has always been, and the Spirit has always been. No
person precedes the other, no follows another. Charles Hodge said in
reflecting on the early church councils,
"These Councils decided that the terms Father, Son, and Spirit, were
not expressive merely of relations ad extra, analogous to the terms,
Creator, Preserver, and Benefactor. This was the doctrine known as
Sabellianism, which assumed that the Supreme Being is not only one in
essence, but one in person. The Church doctrine asserts that Father,
Son, and Spirit express internal, necessary, and eternal relations in
the Godhead; that they are personal designations, so that the Father is
one person, the Son another person, and the Spirit another person. They
differ not as allo kai allo, but as allos kai allos; each says I, and
each says Thou, to either of the others. The word used in the Greek
Church to express this fact was first prosopon, and afterwards, and by
general consent, hupostasis; in the Latin Church, "persona," and in
English, person. The idea expressed by the word in its application to
the distinctions in the Godhead, is just as clear and definite as in
its application to men."
Some Oneness writers have gone so far as to say, "To say that God is
three persons and find substantiation for it in the Scripture is a work
in futility. There is literally nothing in the Bible that supports God
being three persons." However, as the Church throughout the ages has
seen fit to reject the modalistic presentation, there must obviously be
some reason for this. Such reason is found in the teaching of Scripture
itself. The Bible presents a number of categories of evidence that
demonstrates the existence of three Persons all sharing the one being
that is God. First, the Persons are described as personal; that is, the
attributes of personhood and personal existence are ascribed to the
three. Secondly, clear distinctions are made between the Persons, so
that it is impossible to confound or confuse the three. The second
Person, the Son, is described as being eternal (as is the Spirit, but
in this context, given the denial of the eternal nature of the Son by
the Oneness position, and the acceptance of the eternality of the
Spirit by the same group, this point is more tangent to the issue) and
is differentiated in this pre-existence from the Father. Finally, we
see real and eternal relationships between the Persons (the opera ad
One of the characteristics of personal existence is will. Few would
argue the point in relationship to the Father, as He obviously has a
will. So too, the Son has a will, for he says to the Father in the
Garden, "not as I will, but as you will." (Matthew 26:39) The
ascription of will to the Persons indicates the ability to reason, to
think, to act, to desire - all those things we associate with
self-consciousness. As we shall see later, there is a difference
between nature and person, and one of those differences is the will.
Inanimate objects do not will; neither do animals. Part of the imago
dei is the will itself.
Another aspect of personhood seen to exist with each of the Persons
is the ability to love. In John 3:35 we read that "the Father loves the
Son..." This is repeated in John 5:20. In John 15:9 the Father loves
the Son, and the Son in return loves those who are His own. In Jesus'
prayer to the Father in John 17, we are again reminded of the Father's
love for Jesus in 17:23, and in verse 24 we are told that this love
between Father and Son has existed from all eternity. That love marks
every word of Jesus concerning the Father is beyond dispute, and is it
not fair to say that the giving of the Holy Spirit to the Church is an
act of love as well? Hence we see that the persons described in these
passages (and in many others) are capable of love, a personal attribute.
It might be argued that these personal attributes are simply applied
to the three manifestations of God, but that this does not necessarily
mean that there are three Persons. However, the Bible clearly
differentiates between the three Persons, as the brief survey to follow
One of the more well-known examples of the existence of three
Persons is the baptism of Jesus recorded in Matthew 3:16-17. Here the
Father speaks from heaven, the Son is being baptized (and is again
described as being the object of the Father's love, paralleling the
Johannine usage), and the Spirit is descending as a dove. Jesus is
not speaking to himself here (as many non-Christian groups tend to
accuse the Trinitarians of making Jesus a ventriloquist), but is spoken
to by the Father. There is no confusing of the Persons at the baptism.
The transfiguration of Jesus in Matthew 17:1-9 again demonstrates
the separate personhood of the Father and the Son. The Son's true pre-
existent glory is unveiled for an instant in the presence of the Father
in the cloud. Communication again takes place, marked with the familiar
love of the Father for the Son. Both the deity and the separate
personhood of the Son is clearly presented in this passage. The Father
spoke to the Son at another time, recorded in John 12:28. Again, the
distinction of person of the Father and the Son is clearly maintained.
Some of the most obvious passages relevant to the Father and the Son
are found in the prayers of Jesus Christ. These are no mock prayers -
Jesus is not speaking to Himself (nor, as the Oneness writer would put
it, is Jesus' humanity speaking to His deity) - He is clearly
communicating with another Person, that being the Person of the Father.
Transcendent heights are reached in the lengthiest prayer we have, that
of John 17. No one can miss the fact of the communication of one Person
(the Son) with another (the Father) presented in this prayer. The usage
of personal pronouns and direct address put the very language squarely
on the side of maintaining the separate personhood of Father and Son.
This is not to say that their unity is something that goes far beyond
simple purpose; indeed, given the background of the Old Testament, the
very statements of the Son regarding His relationship with the Father
are among the strongest assertions of His Deity in the Bible. But, as
stated before, the doctrine of the Trinity is pre-eminently a balanced
doctrine that differentiates between the being or nature of God and the
Persons who share equally that being. If there is more than one God, or
if there is less than three Persons, then the doctrine of the Trinity
is in error.
Striking is the example of Matthew 27:46 where Jesus, quoting from
Psalm 22:1 cries out, "My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?" That
the Father is the immediate person addressed is clear from Luke's
account where the next statement from Jesus in his narrative is
"Father, into your hands I commit my spirit." (Luke 23:46) Some
early heresies (predominately gnostic in character) had to posit some
kind of "separation" of the Deity from the human Son at this point (and
indeed, some Oneness writers could be accused of the same problem).
That this is the Son addressing the Father is crystal clear, and the
ensuing personhood of both is inarguable.
One of the high-water marks of Synoptic Christology is to be found
in Matthew 11:27. Here the reciprocity between the Father and Son is
put forth with exactness, while at the same time dictating the absolute
deity of both.
The relationship of the Father and Son is the topic under discussion
in both John 5:16ff and John 8:12ff. The Apostle again walks a tight
line in maintaining the distinct personhood of Father and Son while
asserting the full deity of Jesus Christ. Outside of a Trinitarian
concept of God, this position of John's is unintelligible. Important in
this discussion is the fact that in the very same passages that the
Deity of the Son is emphasized his distinction from the Father is also
seen. This causes insuperable problems for the Oneness position, as we
shall see. In John 5:19-24, Jesus clearly differentiates himself from
the Father, yet claims attributes that are only proper of Deity (life,
judgment, honor). In John 5:30 the Son says He can do nothing of
Himself, yet in 37-39 he identifies Himself as the one witnessed to by
the Scriptures who can give eternal life. Only Yahweh of the Tanakh can
do so. Hence, the deity spoken of by Jesus is not the Father dwelling
in the Son, but is the Son's personally. This is seen even more plainly
in chapter 8. Here it is the Son who utilizes the phrase ego eimi in
the absolute sense, identifying Himself as Yahweh. It is the Son who
says He is glorified by the Father (v. 54) and yet only four verses
later it is the Son who says, "Before Abraham came into existence, I
AM!" Clearly the Son is fully deity just as the Father.
And what of the Spirit? Jesus said in John 14:16-17 that the Father
would send another (Gr: allos) comforter. Jesus had been the Comforter
for the disciples during His earthly ministry, but He was about to
leave them and return to heaven where he had been before (John 17:5).
The Holy Spirit, identified as a Person by John (through his usage of
the masculine ekeinos at John 16:13), is sent both by the Father (John
14:16) as well as by the Son (16:7). The Spirit is not identified as
the Father, nor as the Son, for neither could send Himself.
Hence, it is clear from this short review that the Scriptures
differentiate between the Person of the Father and the Person of the
Son, as well as differentiating between these and the Spirit. The next
area that must be addressed is the Biblical teaching of the
pre-existence of the Son, or, as often referred to by Oneness writers,
the "eternal Son theory."
That the Son, as a divine Person, has existed from all eternity, is
a solidly Biblical teaching. Most denials of this teaching stem from a
misunderstanding of the term monogenes or the term "begotten" as
used in Psalm 2:7. Such denials cannot stand under the weight of the
Though other passages could be examined, we will limit the
discussion to seven Biblical sections that clearly teach the pre-
existence of the Son as a Person within the divine being. What may be
the most obvious passage is found in Colossians chapter 1, verses 13
through 17. Here the "beloved Son" is described as "the image of the
invisible God, the firstborn (Gr: prototokos) of all creation." He (the
Son) is then described as the Creator in what could only be called
exhaustive terms. Certainly, if the Son is the creator, then the Son
both pre-existed and is indeed eternal, for God is the creator of all
that is. It will not do to say that this passage says that God created
all things for the Son who was yet to exist; for verse 16 is emphatic
is announcing that it was "in Him" that all things were created (the
usage of en is the instrumental of agency). Without doubt the Son is
presented here as pre-existent.
The same can be said of Philippians 2:5-7, the Carmen Christi. This
passage has spawned literally hundreds of volumes, and an in-depth
exegesis is not called for here. Rather, it is obvious that the Son is
presented here as eternally existing (huparchon) in the very morphe tou
theou - the form of God. This One is also said to be "equal with God."
Note there is here no confounding of the Persons (just as throughout
Scripture) yet there is just as plainly an identification of more than
one Person under discussion. It was not the Father with whom the Son
was equal who became flesh and "made Himself of no repute"; rather, it
was the Son who did this.
The opening chapter of the book of Hebrews identifies the Son as
pre-existent as well. Verse 2 echoes Colossians 1:13-17 in saying that
it was "through the Son" that the worlds were made. This Son is the
"radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His being."
Again the distinction of the Son from the Father is maintained at the
exact same time as the absolute deity of the Son is put forward, a
balance found only in the doctrine of the Trinity and not in
non-Christian theories. The Son, verse 3 says, "upholds all things by
His powerful word." This is directly analogous to the final statements
of Colossians 1:17, and demands the continuous and eternal existence of
the Son to make any sense whatsoever. In light of this, it is clear
that the interpretation of verse 5, which quotes from Psalm 2, that
asserts a beginning for the Son misses the entire point of the opening
of Hebrews. In its original context, this passage did not indicate that
God had literally fathered the king to whom the Psalm was addressed;
certainly, therefore, such a forced meaning cannot be placed on this
usage either. Rather, the writer of Hebrew's purpose is to exalt the
Son and demonstrate His superiority even to the angels, going so far as
to clearly identify the Son as Yahweh in verses 10 through 12. It would
be strange indeed if the writer tried to show the real nature of the
Son by saying that He, like the angels, was a created, non-eternal
The Lord Jesus Himself never attempted to say He had a beginning,
but was instead aware of His true nature. In the real "Lord's prayer"
of John 17, he states in verse 5, "And now you glorify me, Father, with
the glory I had with you (para seauto) before the worlds were made."
Jesus is here conscious of the glory which He had shared with the
Father in eternity, a clear reflection of Philippians 2, Hebrews 1,
and, as we shall see, John 1. As Yahweh declares that he will give his
glory to no other (Isaiah 48:11) yet another identification of the Son
as being one with the Father in sharing the divine name Yahweh is here
presented. This glorious pre-existence of which Jesus here speaks is
also seen in John 14:28 when Jesus, having said He was returning to the
Father, points out to the disciples that they should have rejoiced at
this, for rather than His continued existence in His current state of
humiliation (the "being made of no repute" of Philippians 2), He was
about to return to His glorious position with the Father in heaven, a
position which is "greater" than the one He now was enduring.
Many passages in the New Testament identify the Lord Jesus Christ as
Yahweh. One of these is John 8:58, where, again speaking as the Son,
Jesus asserts his existence before Abraham. As pointed out above, it
does not do to say that this was simply an assertion that the deity
resident within Him pre-existed (in Oneness teaching, the Father) but
rather it was He as the Son who was "before Abraham."
In John 3:13 Jesus said, "no one has gone up into heaven except the
one who came out of heaven, the Son of man." Jesus' own words
indicate that He was aware of His origin and pre-existence. What is
also interesting is the name for Himself that is used - the Son of Man.
One would expect the Son of God to be used here, but it is not. Jesus
was one Person, not two. The Son of God was the Son of Man. One cannot
divide Him into two Persons.
The most striking evidence of the pre-existence of the Son is found
in the prologue of the Gospel of John. This vital Christological
passage is incredible for its careful accuracy to detail - even down to
the tenses of verbs the author is discriminating in his writing. It
again must be asserted that, without a Trinitarian understanding of
God, this passage ends up self-contradictory and illogical. John
defines his terms for us in verses 14 and 18. In verse 14 he tells us
that the Logos of whom he has been speaking became flesh in the person
of Jesus Christ. He also tells us that it is Jesus Christ who, though
clearly not the Father Himself, is the one who "makes the Father known"
and who is, indeed, the monogenes theos the "unique God." That
verse 18 has under consideration two separate Persons is beyond
disputation. That these two Persons are the Father and the Son is just
as sure, for John so identifies them.
With this in mind, the first three verses are crystalline in their
teaching. John asserts that the Logos was "in the beginning," that is,
the Word is eternal. This Logos was "with God" (Gr: pros ton
theon.) This latter phrase can only refer to personal contact and
communion, a point to be expanded on in much of the Gospel of John.
Hence, from this phrase, it is clear that one cannot completely
identify the Person of God (in John's usage here, the Father) with the
Logos (i.e., the Son). However, he goes on in the third clause to
provide that balance found throughout the inspired text by saying, "the
Word was God." The NEB renders this clause, "and what God was, the Word
was." Perhaps Dr. Kenneth Wuest came the closest when he translated,
"And the Word was as to His essence absolute deity." By placing the
term theos in the emphatic position, and by using that term itself
(rather than theios - a "godlike" one), John avoids any kind of Arian
subordinationism. At the same time, John does not make logos and theos
identical to one another, for he does not put an article before theos.
By so doing he walks the fine line between Arianism and Sabellianism,
subordinationism and modalism.
Finally, John asserts, as did Paul before him, that the Logos is the
Creator. "Through him were all things made which have been made." This
is exactly the point of Colossians 1:15-17 and Hebrews 1:2. As John
identified the Logos as Jesus Christ, the Son of God, then his
testimony must be added to all the others in proclaiming the
pre-existence of the Son.
Having seen the pre-existence of the Son, then we are forced by the
Biblical data itself to deal with the internal relationships of the
Persons who make up the Godhead. Though many Oneness writers would
object to the terminology utilized to discuss this subject, it is they,
not the Trinitarian, who are ignoring the Biblical material and its
clear teaching. Though an in-depth discussion of the opera ad intra is
not warranted in this paper, it might be good to point out that we are
obviously here not discussing simply an economic trinity. All of the
above evidence points to real and purposeful distinctions (not
divisions) within the Being of God that are necessary and eternal, not
temporal and passing. God has eternally been trinal and will always be
so. The relationship between the essence of God and the Persons is not
a subject of Biblical discussion directly; but we are forced to deal
with the issue nevertheless - by the Scriptural testimony itself. G. T.
Shedd expressed it this way:
"The essence...is not prior, either in the order of nature or of
time, to the persons, nor subsequent to them, but simultaneous with
them. Hence, the essence is not one constituent factor by itself, apart
from the persons, any more than the persons are three constituent
factors by themselves, apart from the essence. The one essence is
simultaneously three persons, and the three persons are one essence.
The trinity is not a composition of one essence with three persons. It
is not an essence without distinctions united with three distinctions,
so as to make a complex. The trinity is simple and uncomplex. "If,"
says Twesten,... "we distinguish between the clearness of light and the
different degrees of clearness, we do not imply that light is composed
of clearness and degrees of clearness." Neither is God composed of one
untrinal essence and three persons."
With these Trinitarian concepts in mind, the specific Christological
questions must now be addressed.
III. Christological Concepts
"Therefore, following the holy Fathers, we all with one accord teach
men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once
complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man,
consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance
[homoousios] with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same
time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all
respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the
Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us
men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer
[theotokos]; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten,
recognized in two natures, without confusion, without change, without
division, without separation [en duo phusesin, asungchutos atreptos,
adiairetos achoristos]; the distinction of natures being in no way
annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature
being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence
[hupostasis], not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and
the same Son and Only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as
the prophets from earliest times spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus
Christ himself taught us, and the creed of the Fathers has handed down
In 451 A.D. the Council of Chalcedon formulated this definition of
the Person of Christ. The council was called as a result of the
controversy concerning the relationship of the divine and the human in
the Lord Jesus. The Nestorian controversy, monothelitism, the
Eutychian controversy, and others, had precipitated the council. It can
be safely said that we have yet to get beyond Chalcedon in our theology
- modern orthodox Christological formulations have not proceeded beyond
the Chalcedonian definition. Chalcedon's emphasis on the two natures
but one person in Christ was anticipated in its main elements by the
Athanasian creed. A portion of that creed reads, "He is perfect God and
He is perfect man, with a rational soul and human flesh...Although He
is God and man, He is not two but one Christ...because He is one
The relationship between the divine and the human in Christ is as
unique as the God who brought this situation about. Indeed, to
understand this relationship one must first define the terms being
utilized, and this was one of the main contributions of Chalcedon.
Schaff noted that one of the main importances of Chalcedon was
"The precise distinction between nature and person. Nature or
substance is the totality of powers and qualities which constitute a
being; person is the Ego, the self-conscious, self-asserting, and
acting subject. There is no person withou
Doc viewed 11264 times.
The articles in the list below have 1 or more of the same keywords or phrases as the article you are viewing.
If you wish to hone in on a single keyword, click on that keyword and you will see a list
of articles that match just that keyword.