This material was compiled by Charles L. Monk for a Theology Class at Rockmont
College in Denver, CO in December 1982. Any questions on this material or the
interpretations of the Scripture can be addressed to me at (713) 726-1513.
BEHOLD, THE BRIDEGROOM COMES
“Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me.” (John
14:1) The very nucleus of the gospel and the basis of all Christian faith is
presented to the disciples by the author of all salvation, Jesus Christ.
The command contained in this passage is then followed by one of the greatest
promises ever given to mankind.
“In my Father’s house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told
you. I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for
you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye
may be also.” (John 14:2D3)
As Christians we understand verse 1 and believe in Christ, yet we fail to
understand verses 2 and 3 because we do not consider them in the same context
in which they were given by Christ to His disciples. Instead we superimpose
our modern cultural concepts and thereby do not comprehend the full impact of
this passage and others which refer to Christ as the bridegroom coming for the
church, depicted as the bride of Christ.
My thesis is that there are crucial comparisons between the Jewish marriage
customs, as they were practiced in the time of Jesus Christ, and the time
elements involved in the return of our Lord and Savior which, if analyzed and
properly understood, will assist in a more accurate exegetical and
hermeneutical interpretation of scripture pertaining to His return. In this
document I will first examine customs related to the Jewish marriage ceremony
and then compare these customs to scriptural references concerning Christ’s
return. In this manner I will present what I consider to be a scriptural
analogy which simplifies understanding of the biblical timetable leading up to
the return of Jesus Christ.
Customs Pertaining to the Jewish Marriage
Jewish marriage, similiar to most other cultures, began with the betrothal.
Marriage, to the Jew, conveyed a very formal ritual as well as a very sacred
one. Alfred Edersheim, in his book, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah,
sets forth the significance of this relationship saying:
“It (Jewish marriage) was regarded almost as a Sacra-ment. Entrance into the
married state was thought to carry the forgiveness of sins. …thus the bridal
pair on the marriage day symbolized the union of God with Israel.”
Betrothal in earlier times had been initiated by parental overtures but by the
time of Christ this was no longer considered the norm. The bridegroom would
travel from his home to the home of the bride in order to negotiate with his
prospective father-in-law, the purchase price of his bride. This price,
refered to as the “mohar”, had to be paid prior to any other events relating
to the marriage. Once paid, the marriage covenant was established and the man
and woman were, for all intents and purposes, considered to be husband and
wife. From that moment on the bride was declared “consecrated”, or
“sanctified” set apart exclusively for her bridegroom4.
As a symbol of the covenant relationship which had been established, the groom
and bride would drink from a cup of wine over which a betrothal benediction
had been pronounced.
Once the marriage covenant had been established, the groom would leave the home
of his bride and return to his father’s house. He would remain separated from
his bride for an indefinite period of time usually not to exceed twelve
months. During this time both the groom and the bride had specific
preparations which had to be accomplished prior to the wedding ceremony.
The groom was required to prepare living accomodations for him and his new
bride.This customarily involved building an addition to his father’s house
large enough for the two of them to live in. The strong family ties inherent
in the Jewish culture of Christ’s day normally precluded the building of a
separate house away from the family. The groom’s preparations would include
not only the structure, but also everything needed to set up a household. He
would provide all that he could afford in order to offer his bride the most
comfort and pleasant living accommodations possible.
The bride, in anticipation of her married life, would busy herself with her
trousseau and personal arrangements. Traditionally, during this separation,
her mother would teach her all things necessary to fulfill her marital
responsibilities. It was a time spent in close fellowship as both recognized
their new roles.
The Return for the Bride
As stated earlier, the groom would be separated from his bride-to be for an
indefinite period of time usually not exceeding twelve months. Once he had
prepared the household and everything was ready for his bride, the groom would
prepare himself for the wedding ceremony. He would call his closest friends,
including his “best man”, and inform them of his immediate intentions so that
they, too, could prepare for the wedding procession through the town.
The taking of the bride usually occurred at night. The groom and his friends
would form a procession and, with lighted torches, they would proceed through
the town so that all the townspeople would be aware of the wedding. Then they
would proceed to the home of the unsuspecting bride. The bride, even though
anticipating the return of her groom, would never know exactly when he was
coming for her and therefore, had to be constantly prepared for his return.
The procession would hush themselves before arriving at the home of the bride
in order to surprise her, and the groom would announce his return with a
shout. The bride would then send a servant or a member of her household to get
her bridesmaids and they would prepare for the journey to the home of the
groom where the rest of the festivities took place.
The bride would then gather her necessary belongings and join the procession
through the town to her new home prepared by her husband. She would be wearing
her wedding gown and her face would be veiled. The wedding guests would
already be in attendance when the bridal pair arrived. Presumably these
guests had heard the procession and went straight to the house to help prepare
for the wedding feast.
Consummation of the Marriage
Shortly after their arrival the bridal pair were escorted by their closest
friends to the bridal chamber, referred to as the “huppah”. These friends
making up the wedding party would then wait at the door while the couple
consummated the marriage, entering into physical union for the first time.
This would finalize the marital agreement which had been covenanted earlier.
After the consummation the groom would step out and announce to the wedding
party that the marriage had been finalized and completed. (In later years it
became tradition for the groom to bring out the sheet from off of the wedding
bed to prove the chastity and virginity of his bride. This was a sign of honor
to both him and his new wife.)
The Wedding Feast and the Seven Days of the Huppah
Directly after the groom made his announcement the wedding feast would begin.
This feast would last seven days and was called the seven days of the
“huppah”. During this time the bride and groom were waited on by their friends
and all meals were taken in the bridal chamber. Upon completion of the week
they would emerge from the bridal chamber and the bride would now be unveiled
for all to see.
The promise of John 14:13 was given by Christ to His disciples in the Upper
Room Discourse. That they did not immediately understand the passage is clear
from Thomas’ question, “Lord we know not whither thou goest; and how can we
know the way?” (John 14:5) However, in this same discourse Christ tells His
disciples He will send them the Holy Spirit who will teach them all things and
bring to their remembrance what He had said. Later, through the ministry of
the Holy Spirit, the disciples understood the promise in its proper context.
As Christians today, we do not understand the concept of Christ the bridegroom
as the disciples understood it because we superimpose our own cultural customs
of marriage on this promise and thereby miss much of its significance.
The concept is not a difficult one to understand.The idea of God’s relationship
to man as similiar to the relationship of husband and wife has been taught
extensively in the Old Testament. Christ, in the parable of the ten virgins,
likened His relationship to the Church as the bridegroom coming for the bride.
In answer to the Pharisees’ question, “Why do the disciples of John fast
often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but
thine eat and drink?” Christ refers to Himself as the bridegroom saying, “Can
ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with
To support my thesis, let us now compare these marriage customs with what the
Bible has recorded about the return of Jesus Christ to see if an analogy does
In Jewish marriage customs the betrothal occurred when the man took the
initiative, left his father’s home and went to the home of the prospective
bride to negotiate the purchase price. This price, the “mohar,” had to be
paid prior to anything else relating to the marriage.
In comparison, Christ left heaven, His Father’s house, and came to earth, the
home of His bride, to pay the price for a lost humanity. The “mohar” was His
life’s blood. We are redeemed by His blood. Ephesians 1:7 states, “In whom
we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to
the riches of his grace.” Peter, in his epistle also mentions this,
“Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things…but
with the precious blood of Christ…” (1 Peter 1:18,19)
The analogy is not exact here because Christ did not negotiate with the father
of this world, Satan, for the purchase price of the believers That price was
determined beforehand by God.
The groom obtained his bride through the establishment of a marriage covenant.
In the same manner, Christ came to the earth to establish a covenant. This
covenant, foretold in the Old Testament by the prophet Jeremiah, was
established the same night He gave the promise to His disciples. It is the
New Covenant established by the shedding of His blood on the cross.
In the Jewish ceremony a shared cup of wine served as a symbol of the marriage
covenant.In the Church today the communion cup is the symbol of the covenant
established by Christ to obtain His bride.
When the price had been paid the Jewish bride was considered sanctified, set
apart exclusively for her husband. The Church, too, has been declared
sanctified, set apart exclusively for Christ. In Ephesians Paul teaches,
“Husbands love your wives even as Christ loved the church, and gave himself
for it; that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the
word.” Even Corinth, the most carnal of churches addressed in the New
Testament, was considered sanctified. The author of Hebrews says we are all
sanctified through the offering of the body of Christ once for all.
With the establishment of the marriage covenant and the payment of the “mohar”
accomplished, the groom would return to his father’s house to accomplish the
necessary preparations. Christ, after paying the price, also departed to His
Father’s house to make preparation. The promise of His return in John 14
includes His preparation on our behalf when He said, “I go to prepare a place
The Jewish groom remained separated from his bride for an indefinite period of
time. Christ’s separation is also for an indefinite period of time.
Here again the analogy does not exactly coincide as the Jewish groom was
separated for a time usually not exceeding twelve months; whereas Christ’s
return has been delayed significantly longer. The Church is now living in
this period of separation.
Just as the Jewish groom prepared living accomodations for his new bride in his
father’s house, Christ is preparing accommodations for us in His Father’s
house in heaven.
The Jewish bride busied herself with her trousseau and learned about her
marital responsibilities. Christ has even taken care of this for the Church,
for when He comes we will exchange our corruptible for the incorruptible.
The Return for the Bride
After all necessary preparations had been made, the Jewish groom returned for
his bride to take her to be with him in their new home. The taking of the
bride occurred at night and the groom would make his presence known by a
shout. Christ will return for His bride in like manner. It will undoubtedly
be at night for some and day for others as we are told by Paul it will occur
in the twinkling of an eye. Christ’s presence will be made known by a shout
also. Paul tells us through his letter to the Thessalonians, “For the Lord
himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the
archangel…” (1Thessalonians 4:16)
In the taking of the bride in the Jewish ceremony, the groom was accompanied by
a procession of his friends. Christ will also be accompanied by a procession
of an angelic escort.
Just as the Jewish bride had no idea when her groom would return for her, the
Church today has no idea when Christ will return.Paul tells us as he told the
Thessalonian believers, “This day will come as a thief in the night.”
Similar to the Jewish bride returning with her husband to his father’s house,
the Church will return with Christ to heaven. In this way we will inhabit the
heavenly dwelling place prepared specifically for us by Christ in heaven.
When the Jewish bride and groom returned to the father’s house, the wedding
guests had already congregated there in preparation for the feast.Similarly,
when we get to heaven with Christ, I believe the wedding guests will already
be there. We will find the souls of the Old Testament saints there as guests
to celebrate with us.
When the bride and groom entered into physical union for the first time, they
consummated the marriage and thereby completed the marriage covenant.
Similarly, when the Church is taken to the Father’s house in heaven we will
enter into spiritual union with Christ thereby consummating the relationship
which Christ covenanted with the Church over 1900 years ago.
This spiritual union will be the fulfillment of the promise given to the
Corinthian church (and ultimately to all believers through the ages) when Paul
told them, “For now we see through a glass darkly; but then face to face: now
I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.”
When the groom came to take his bride to his father’s house she went veiled,
for it would have been considered improper for her face to have been seen in
public.38 The Jewish bride remained veiled until she was in the “huppah”, the
bridal chamber. In like manner, the Church during this age does not know
exactly who the other members of the Church are; as Paul says, “we see through
a glass darkly.” When Christ takes us to heaven though, we shall see each
other as face to face.
The Wedding Feast, The Huppah, The Tribulation
In the traditional Jewish marriage ceremony the marriage was consummated and
the announcement was made to the wedding guests. This announcement would
signal the beginning the wedding feast.
Just as the Jewish bride remained hidden in the “huppah” for a period of seven
days, so will the Church remain hidden for a period of seven.Both Daniel, in
the Old Testament, and Revelation, in the New Testament, give the exact amount
of time for this period. This is the time period of Daniel’s seventieth
seven. It is the period referred to in Revelation as the Tribulation.
Revelation gives the exact number of days for the last half of this time
At the close of the wedding feast the groom would proudly escort his bride out
of the bridal chamber. She would now be unveiled for all to see, in full
view. So Christ will bring the Church out of heaven at the end of the
Tribulation period in full view of all who are left alive.Paul told the
Colossians of this event in these words, “For ye are dead, and your life is
hid with Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then
shall ye also appear with him in glory.” (Colossians 3:3,4)
The analogy between the Jewish marriage customs and the relationship Christ has
with the Church is a beautiful one and full of significance to Believer and
non Believer alike. First, to the Believer this relationship is most
significant to the Believer for several reasons. It shows the Believer the
sequence of events which have led up to the present time of separation between
the Church and Jesus Christ. It gives the Believer hope for the return of
Jesus Christ and the re-establishment of the close personal relationship we
will share with Him throughout eternity.
It is also significant in what it teaches about our present relationship to the
risen Christ. In the Jewish analogy it was possible for the Jewish bride to
commit adultery. In the absence of her husband to be she could do this by
giving herself to another man. Even though the actual wedding ceremony had
not yet taken place, this was still considered adultery. Today it is possible
for the Believer to commit spiritual adultery in the absence of Christ. Paul
expressed his concern over this issue when He wrote to the Corinthians and
For I am jealous for you with a godly jealousy; for I betrothed you to one
husband, that to Christ I might present you as a pure virgin. But I am afraid,
lest as the Serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness, your minds should be led
astray from the simplicity and purity of devotion to Christ. (2 Corinthians
James also was concerned about the same thing when he wrote that friendship
with the world is hostility toward God. The context here seems to indicate
one commits spiritual adultery when he becomes more devoted to the godless
world system than to Jesus Christ and the things that please Him.
So the significance to be applied personally, is to evaluate your relationship
to the risen Lord and determine what it is He would have you to do in His
absence. Determine if He remains the center of your life and if you are
anxiously awaiting His return. Ask yourself if He is controlling your every
desire and thought, or if your relationship to the world is of more
If you have been unfaithful in your relationship to Him you can be confident He
will forgive you of those actions if you confess them and ask for His
forgiveness. II Timothy 2:16 affirms his faithfulness toward us despite our
actions.If we earnestly seek a closer walk with Him and desire Him to rule in
our lives we will readily admit our failure to remain pure. But upon
confession we can be assured the Holy Spirit will renew our devotion and we
can wait for His return confidently.
Secondly, to the Unbeliever, if you have never trusted Jesus Christ as your
personal Savior, you have absolutely no part in the foregoing analogy. If you
do not establish a relationship with Jesus you can not become a part of His
bride, the Church. You will not take part in the reunification.Christ died on
the cross for your sins, by His shed blood on that cross he paid the price for
your sins also. You can enter into this relationship by admitting your need
for a Savior and by accepting Him as that Savior.
Just as the proposal of the Jewish bridegroom could be either accepted or
rejected, you too, can either reject or accept the offer Christ makes to you
each time you hear the gospel. The warning is: if you continue to reject
Him, He will reject you and you will spend eternity separated from God and
If you accept Christ’s proposal your sins will be forgiven and you will enter
into the relationship and be a part of His bride. You will be gathered
together with Him when He returns.Accepting His proposal is really quite
simple. You simply believe that Jesus Christ is the son of God, that He came
to earth and died to pay the price for your sins, that He arose from the dead
as proof that His sacrifice on your behalf was acceptable to God.