Christian Doctrine, S1, SABBATH- SEPARATION
AUTHOR: Unknown
PUBLISHED ON: May 5, 2003
PUBLISHED IN: Bible Studies

SABBATH (FESTIVALS)…             The following chart is taken from “The New Unger#39;s Bible Dictionary”             So also is the material covering the topics of: Sabbath (Festivals),             and Sabbath Festivals (as Types).              –                                                   Festivals of Israel             ====================================================================                   Cycle or              Name of            Reference in the                 Historic Period        Observance        Scripture or Apocrypha             ====================================================================                   “Septenary”          Weekly Sabbath        Exodus 20: 8-11             (or cycles of Sabbaths)                                  31:12-17             (i.e. cycles of Sevens)                        Leviticus 23:12                                       Seventh New Moon      Numbers 28:11-15                                   (or Feast of Trumpets)            29: 1-6                                       Sabbatic Year          Exodus 23:10-11                                     (every seventh year)  Leviticus 25: 2-7                                       Year of Jubilee      Leviticus 25: 8-16                                                                     27:16-25                                           New Moon          Numbers 10:10                                                                     28:11-15             ====================================================================                     Yearly  ***    Feast of Passover        Exodus 12: 1-28                             *    and Unleavened Bread              23:15                             *    (1st of the 3 Great    Leviticus 23: 4-8                             *        Annual Feasts)        Numbers 28:16-25                             *                          Deuteronomy 16:16                             *                                      18: 1-8                             *                             *      Offering of the          Exodus 23:16                             ***  Firstfruits or Harvest  Leviticus 23:11                                         Pentecost            Exodus 34:22                                     [or Feast of Weeks]    Leviticus 23:15-16                                     (2nd of the 3 Great      Numbers 28:26                                       Annual Feasts)    Deuteronomy 16:10, 16                                     Day of Atonement        Exodus 30:10-30                                                           Leviticus 16: 1-34                                                             Numbers 29: 7-11                                       Feast of Booths      Leviticus 23:34-42                                       [Tabernacles]        Numbers 29:12-38                                     (3rd of the 3 Great  Deuteronomy 10:13-16                                       Annual Feasts)      Nehemiah  8:13-18                                                                 John  7: 2, 37             ====================================================================                   Postexilic          Feast of Purim          Esther  9:24-32                                     Feast of Dedication  1 Maccabees  4:52-59                                                         2 Maccabees 10: 5-8                                                                 John 10:22             ====================================================================             1.>    The Weekly Sabbath (Exodus 20:8-11; 31:12-17).                   The name “Sabbath” is applied to various great festivals  but             principally  and usually to the seventh day of the week, the  strict             observance  of  which is enforced not merely in the  general  Mosaic             code but also in the Ten Commandments.             EXO 20:8  “Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.             EXO 20:9  Six days you shall labor and do all your work,             EXO 20:10  but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On             it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter,             nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the  alien             within your gates.             EXO 20:11  For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the  earth,             the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh  day.             Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.             EXO 31:12  Then the LORD said to Moses,             EXO  31:13  “Say to the Israelites, #39;You must observe  my  Sabbaths.             This will be a sign between me and you for the generations to  come,             so you may know that I am the LORD, who makes you holy.             EXO 31:14  “#39;Observe the Sabbath, because it is holy to you.  Anyone             who  desecrates  it must be put to death; whoever does any  work  on             that day must be cut off from his people.             EXO 31:15  For six days, work is to be done, but the seventh day  is             a  Sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD. Whoever does any work  on  the             Sabbath day must be put to death.             EXO 31:16  The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating it             for the generations to come as a lasting covenant.             EXO 31:17  It will be a sign between me and the Israelites  forever,             for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, and on  the             seventh day he abstained from work and rested.#39;”             2.>    The Feast of Trumpets (or Seventh New Moon) (Numbers 29:1).             NUM  29:1  “#39;On the first day of the seventh month  hold  a  sacred             assembly  and do no regular work. It is a day for you to  sound  the             trumpets.                   The  feast of the New Moon, which fell on the seventh  month,             or Tishri. This differed from the ordinary festivals of the new moon             because  of the symbolic meaning of the seventh or sabbatical  month             and  partly, perhaps, because it marked the beginning of  the  civil             year. This month was distinguished above all the other months of the             year by the multitude of ordinances connected with it, the first day             being consecrated to sacred rest and spiritual employment, the tenth             being the Day of Atonement, whereas the fifteenth began the feast of             Booths (Tabernacles, KJV).             Observance…                   This day was observed as a feast day, in the strict sense, by             resting from all work, and as a holy convocation, by the blowing  of             horns.  Throughout  the day trumpets were blown  at  Jerusalem  from             morning to evening. In the Temple it was done even on a Sabbath, but             not outside its walls.             The  Day  of  Atonement, which falls on this  month,  provides  full             expiation  of all sins and the removal of all uncleanness;  and  the             Feast  of  Tabernacles, beginning five days thereafter,  provides  a             foretaste  of the blessedness of life in fellowship with  the  Lord.             The  fact  that Tishri was the great month for sowing  might  easily             have suggested the thought of commemorating on this day the finished             work of creation, and thus the feast of Trumpets came to be regarded             as the anniversary of the beginning of the world.             3.>    Sabbatic Year (Exodus 23:10-11; Leviticus 25:2-7).             The  newest edition of “The International Standard Bible  Encyclope-             dia” says this…                   Observance of the Sabbatical Year possessed agricultural  and             economic  value,  for it prevented continuous tilling  of  the  land             (Leviticus  25:4). It thus corresponded to the weekly  sabbath  rest             after six days of labor. But a more important feature, and one  that             is  more  stressed  by Scripture, is the  Sabbatical  Year#39;s  social             function  of  aiding the poor; it specifically  designated  to  them             whatever happened to grow during the seventh season (Exodus 23:10).             Unger#39;s Bible Dictionary continues with the following…             Time, Observance…                   The  sabbatic  year, like the year of Jubilee, began  on  the             first day of the civil year, namely, the first of the month  Tishri.             Although this was the time fixed for the celebration of the sabbatic             year during the time of the second Temple, the tillage and  cultiva-             tion of certain fields and gardens had already begun to be left  off             in the sixth year. Thus it was ordained that fields upon which trees             were planted were not to be cultivated after the feast of  Pentecost             of  the  sixth year, whereas the cultivation of grainfields  was  to             cease from the feast of the Passover.             EXO 23:10  “For six years you are to sow your fields and harvest the             crops,             EXO 23:11  but during the seventh year let the land lie unplowed and             unused.  Then the poor among your people may get food from  it,  and             the  wild  animals may eat what they leave. Do the  same  with  your             vineyard and your olive grove.             LEV 25:2  “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: #39;When you  enter             the  land  I am going to give you, the land itself  must  observe  a             sabbath to the LORD.             LEV  25:3  For six years sow your fields, and for six  years  prune             your vineyards and gather their crops.             LEV  25:4  But in the seventh year the land is to have a sabbath  of             rest,  a sabbath to the LORD. Do not sow your fields or  prune  your             vineyards.             LEV 25:5  Do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the grapes  of             your untended vines. The land is to have a year of rest.             LEV  25:6  Whatever the land yields during the sabbath year will  be             food for youfor yourself, your manservant and maidservant, and the             hired worker and temporary resident who live among you,             LEV 25:7  as well as for your livestock and the wild animals in your             land. Whatever the land produces may be eaten.             4.>    The Year of Jubilee (Leviticus 25:8-16).             LEV  25:8  “#39;Count off seven sabbaths of yearsseven  times  seven             yearsso  that  the seven sabbaths of years amount to a  period  of             forty-nine years.             LEV 25:9  Then have the trumpet sounded everywhere on the tenth  day             of  the  seventh month; on the Day of Atonement  sound  the  trumpet             throughout your land.             LEV  25:10  Consecrate  the  fiftieth  year  and  proclaim  liberty             throughout  the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be  a  jubilee             for  you;  each one of you is to return to his family  property  and             each to his own clan.             LEV 25:11  The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee for you; do not  sow             and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines.             LEV  25:12  For it is a jubilee and is to be holy for you; eat  only             what is taken directly from the fields.             LEV  25:13  “#39;In this Year of Jubilee everyone is to return  to  his             own property.             LEV  25:14  “#39;If you sell land to one of your countrymen or buy  any             from him, do not take advantage of each other.             LEV  25:15  You are to buy from your countryman on the basis of  the             number  of years since the Jubilee. And he is to sell to you on  the             basis of the number of years left for harvesting crops.             LEV  25:16  When the years are many, you are to increase the  price,             and  when the years are few, you are to decrease the price,  because             what he is really selling you is the number of crops.             5.>    The “New Moon” (Numbers 10:10).             NUM  10:10  Also at your times of rejoicingyour  appointed  feasts             and  New  Moon festivalsyou are to sound the  trumpets  over  your             burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, and they will be a memori-             al for you before your God. I am the LORD your God.”                   The new moon stood as the representative of the month or “the             beginning of the month”. The new moon was not reckoned by astronomi-             cal calculation, but by actual personal observation. On the  thirti-             eth  day  of the month watchmen were placed  on  commanding  heights             around Jerusalem to watch the sky. As soon as each of them  detected             the  moon he hastened to a house in the city kept for  this  purpose             and  was there examined by the president of the Sanhedrin. When  the             evidence  of the appearance was deemed satisfactory,  the  president             stood  up  and  formally announced it, uttering the  words,  “It  is             consecrated”.  The information was immediately sent  throughout  the             land  from  the Mount of Olives by beacon fires on the tops  of  the             hills.  The  religious  observance of the day of the  new  moon  may             plainly  be  regarded as the consecration of a natural  division  of             time.             6.>    Feast of Passover and Unleavened Bread                   (Exodus 12:1-28; 23:15; Leviticus 23:4-8)                   Followed by the Firstfruits [or Harvest]                   (Exodus 23:16; Leviticus 23:11).                   The “Passover” and the feast of “Unleavened Bread” as a  unit             constituted  the most important of the three great annual  festivals             of Israel, with the other two being “Pentecost” and “Tabernacles”.             EXO 12:1  The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt,             EXO  12:2  “This month is to be for you the first month,  the  first             month of your year.             EXO  12:3  Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth  day             of  this  month each man is to take a lamb for his family,  one  for             each household.             EXO 12:4  If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they  must             share one with their nearest neighbor, having taken into account the             number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of  lamb             needed in accordance with what each person will eat.             EXO  12:5  The animals you choose must be  year-old  males  without             defect, and you may take them from the sheep or the goats.             EXO  12:6  Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the  month,             when  all the people of the community of Israel must slaughter  them             at twilight.             EXO 12:7  Then they are to take some of the blood and put it on  the             sides  and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they  eat  the             lambs.             EXO 12:8  That same night they are to eat the meat roasted over  the             fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast.             EXO  12:9  Do not eat the meat raw or cooked in water, but roast  it             over the firehead, legs and inner parts.             EXO 12:10  Do not leave any of it till morning; if some is left till             morning, you must burn it.             EXO  12:11  This is how you are to eat it: with your  cloak  tucked             into  your  belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff  in  your             hand. Eat it in haste; it is the LORD#39;S Passover.             EXO 12:12  “On that same night I will pass through Egypt and  strike             down  every firstbornboth men and animalsand I will bring  judg-             ment on all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD.             EXO 12:13  The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where  you             are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No  destructive             plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.             EXO  12:14  “This is a day you are to commemorate; for  the  genera-             tions  to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to  the  LORDa             lasting ordinance.             EXO  12:15  For seven days you are to eat bread made without  yeast.             On the first day remove the yeast from your houses, for whoever eats             anything  with  yeast in it from the first day through  the  seventh             must be cut off from Israel.             EXO 12:16  On the first day hold a sacred assembly, and another  one             on  the  seventh  day. Do no work at all on these  days,  except  to             prepare food for everyone to eatthat is all you may do.             EXO 12:17  “Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because it  was             on  this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt.  Cele-             brate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.             EXO  12:18  In the first month you are to eat  bread  made  without             yeast,  from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening  of             the twenty-first day.             EXO  12:19  For seven days no yeast is to be found in  your  houses.             And whoever eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from  the             community of Israel, whether he is an alien or native-born.             EXO 12:20  Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you  must             eat unleavened bread.”             EXO 12:21  Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said  to             them,  “Go  at  once and select the animals for  your  families  and             slaughter the Passover lamb.             EXO

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